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J Biol Chem. 2000 Jan 14;275(2):1176-82.

Phosphorylation modulates the function of the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor transcriptional repressor protein.

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  • 1Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Cedars-Sinai Research Institute-UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California 90048, USA.


The transcriptional repressor for rat vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor 1 (VIPR-RP) is a recently isolated transcription factor. In this study, we have characterized the functional domains of VIPR-RP and the importance of phosphorylation on VIPR-RP function. Using various regions of VIPR-RP in gel mobility shift assays, we show that the amino acid sequences between positions 367 and 475 play an essential role for VIPR-RP DNA binding. Transient transfection of fusion constructs containing GAL4 DNA binding domain and different parts of VIPR-RP indicated that there are two separate transcriptional repression domains in VIPR-RP, located between amino acids 50 and 101 and between 469 and 527. We demonstrated that VIPR-RP is phosphorylated in vitro by casein kinase II on Ser-69/71 and Thr-110, and by cAMP-dependent kinase on Ser-245/361. Furthermore, by site-directed mutagenesis, we show that phosphorylation of the casein kinase II sites potentiates VIPR-RP transcriptional repression activity by enhancing its nuclear translocation, and that phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent kinase inhibits VIPR- RP transcriptional repression function without affecting its subcellular localization. These observations suggest that phosphorylation plays an important role in regulating VIPR-RP function.

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