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Resuscitation. 1999 Oct;42(2):117-24.

Clinical analogies for the management of toxic trauma.

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  • 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Prince Philip Hospital, Hong Kong SAR, People's Republic of China.


The management of injuries from toxic release (HAZMAT) incidents is unfamiliar to many emergency medical responders owing to the relative rarity of such incidents. However, the risks from toxic release in both industrial and other metropolitan areas are increasing and emergency medical services (EMS) personnel should be trained to be aware of the dangers to both victims and responders alike. Many examples exist of analogies for the management of HAZMAT situations from conventional prehospital and hospital emergency medicine. Application of the lessons learned in more familiar situations will be of benefit for the preparation of an effective EMS response for HAZMAT.

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