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J Infect Dis. 2000 Jan;181(1):58-63.

Cervical shedding of herpes simplex virus in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women: effects of hormonal contraception, pregnancy, and vitamin A deficiency.

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  • 1International AIDS Research and Training Program, Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195, USA.

Abstract

Genital shedding of herpes simplex virus (HSV) results in frequent transmission of infection to sexual partners and neonates. In a cross-sectional study, cervical shedding of HSV DNA was detected in 43 (17%) cervical swab samples from 273 women seropositive for HSV-1, HSV-2, and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Cervical shedding of HSV was significantly associated with oral contraception (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-12.2), use of depo-medroxyprogesterone acetate (aOR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3-7.7), and pregnancy (aOR, 7.9; 95% CI, 2.0-31.7). In the subgroup of women who were not pregnant and not using hormonal contraception (n=178), serum vitamin A was highly predictive of cervical HSV shedding: concentrations indicating severe deficiency, moderate deficiency, low-normal, and high-normal status were associated with 29%, 18%, 8%, and 2% prevalences of cervical HSV shedding, respectively (linear trend, P=.0002). Several factors appear to influence HSV reactivation in HIV-1 seropositive women.

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