Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Nature. 1999 Dec 9;402(6762):685-9.

Mitochondrial glutamate acts as a messenger in glucose-induced insulin exocytosis.

Author information

  • 1Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Centre, Geneva, Switzerland. pierre.maechler@medecine.unige.ch

Abstract

The hormone insulin is stored in secretory granules and released from the pancreatic beta-cells by exocytosis. In the consensus model of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, ATP is generated by mitochondrial metabolism, promoting closure of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, which depolarizes the plasma membrane. Subsequently, opening of voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channels increases the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]c) which constitutes the main trigger initiating insulin exocytosis. Nevertheless, the Ca2+ signal alone is not sufficient for sustained secretion. Furthermore, glucose elicits a secretory response under conditions of clamped, elevated [Ca2+]c. A mitochondrial messenger must therefore exist which is distinct from ATP. We have now identified this as glutamate. We show that glucose generates glutamate from beta-cell mitochondria. A membrane-permeant glutamate analogue sensitizes the glucose-evoked secretory response, acting downstream of mitochondrial metabolism. In permeabilized cells, under conditions of fixed [Ca2+]c, added glutamate directly stimulates insulin exocytosis, independently of mitochondrial function. Glutamate uptake by the secretory granules is likely to be involved, as inhibitors of vesicular glutamate transport suppress the glutamate-evoked exocytosis. These results demonstrate that glutamate acts as an intracellular messenger that couples glucose metabolism to insulin secretion.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Nature Publishing Group
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk