Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 1999 Nov;83(5):431-4.

Linking upper and lower airways.

Author information

  • 1Unité de Pneumologie-INSERM U 408-Hôpital BICHAT, Paris, France.



Upper and lower airways are similar in many ways, including common triggers, pathogenic mechanisms, and response to treatment. Explanations for the posed linkage between upper and lower airways include nasal-bronchial reflux, postnasal drainage of inflammatory material into the lower airways, and dry air impinging on the nasal mucosa.


Treatment modalities such as antihistamines and corticosteroid aerosols by the nasal route improve both the upper and lower airways.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk