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Arch Surg. 1999 Nov;134(11):1203-8.

Simulation and virtual reality in surgical education: real or unreal?

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  • 1Department of Surgery, Stanford University School of Medicine, Calif 94305-5655, USA.


Rapid change is under way on several fronts in medicine and surgery. Advances in computing power have enabled continued growth in virtual reality, visualization, and simulation technologies. The ideal learning opportunities afforded by simulated and virtual environments have prompted their exploration as learning modalities for surgical education and training. Ongoing improvements in this technology suggest an important future role for virtual reality and simulation in surgical education and training.

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