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J Agric Food Chem. 1999 Mar;47(3):1098-108.

Formation of mutagenic/carcinogenic heterocyclic amines in dry-heated model systems, meats, and meat drippings.

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  • 1Biology and Biotechnology Research Program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-9900, USA.


Mixtures of amino acids, creatine, and glucose simulating the composition of six different kinds of meats (beef, chicken breast, chicken thigh, turkey breast, pork, and fish) were dry-heated to simulate the formation of heterocyclic amines in meats. The presence of 16 heterocyclic amines was investigated in the model systems and in the six meats and their corresponding meat drippings to determine the importance of meat composition to heterocyclic amine formation. Nine mutagenic amines (IQ, MeIQ, 8-MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, IQx, IFP, DMIP, and TMIP) were found to be present at concentrations >0.1 ng/g in some of the model systems and in some of the meats or pan residues. Heterocyclic amine concentrations clearly are affected by precursor composition in this model system, and the same nine heterocyclic amines formed in the meat and in the model system show that this is a well-controlled surrogate for the reaction conditions that occur in meats during cooking.

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