Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Biochem J. 1999 Nov 15;344 Pt 1:109-16.

Formation of glyoxal, methylglyoxal and 3-deoxyglucosone in the glycation of proteins by glucose.

Author information

  • 1Department of Biological Sciences, University of Essex, Central Campus, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO43SQ, Essex, U.K.


The glycation of proteins by glucose has been linked to the development of diabetic complications and other diseases. Early glycation is thought to involve the reaction of glucose with N-terminal and lysyl side chain amino groups to form Schiff's base and fructosamine adducts. The formation of the alpha-oxoaldehydes, glyoxal, methylglyoxal and 3-deoxyglucosone, in early glycation was investigated. Glucose (50 mM) degraded slowly at pH 7.4 and 37 degrees C to form glyoxal, methylglyoxal and 3-deoxyglucosone throughout a 3-week incubation period. Addition of t-BOC-lysine and human serum albumin increased the rate of formation of alpha-oxoaldehydes - except glyoxal and methylglyoxal concentrations were low with albumin, as expected from the high reactivity of glyoxal and methylglyoxal with arginine residues. The degradation of fructosyl-lysine also formed glyoxal, methylglyoxal and 3-deoxyglucosone. alpha-Oxoaldehyde formation was dependent on the concentration of phosphate buffer and availability of trace metal ions. This suggests that alpha-oxoaldehydes were formed in early glycation from the degradation of glucose and Schiff's base adduct. Since alpha-oxoaldehydes are important precursors of advanced glycation adducts, these adducts may be formed from early and advanced glycation processes. Short periods of hyperglycaemia, as occur in impaired glucose tolerance, may be sufficient to increase the concentrations of alpha-oxoaldehydes in vivo.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk