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J Clin Invest. 1999 Nov;104(9):R33-9.

Missense mutations in the insulin promoter factor-1 gene predispose to type 2 diabetes.

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  • 1Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Institute of Medical Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Foresterhill, Aberdeen AB25 2ZD, United Kingdom.

Abstract

The transcription factor insulin promoter factor-1 (IPF-1) plays a central role in both the development of the pancreas and the regulation of insulin gene expression in the mature pancreatic beta cell. A dominant-negative frameshift mutation in the IPF-l gene was identified in a single family and shown to cause pancreatic agenesis when homozygous and maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) when heterozygous. We studied the role of IPF-1 in Caucasian diabetic and nondiabetic subjects from the United Kingdom. Three novel IPF-1 missense mutations (C18R, D76N, and R197H) were identified in patients with type 2 diabetes. Functional analyses of these mutations demonstrated decreased binding activity to the human insulin gene promoter and reduced activation of the insulin gene in response to hyperglycemia in the human beta-cell line Nes2y. These mutations are present in 1% of the population and predisposed the subject to type 2 diabetes with a relative risk of 3.0. They were not highly penetrant MODY mutations, as there were nondiabetic mutation carriers 25-53 years of age. We conclude that mutations in the IPF-1 gene may predispose to type 2 diabetes and are a rare cause of MODY and pancreatic agenesis, with the phenotype depending upon the severity of the mutation.

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