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J Biol Chem. 1999 Oct 29;274(44):31740-9.

N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine adducts of proteins are ligands for receptor for advanced glycation end products that activate cell signaling pathways and modulate gene expression.

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  • 1College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA.


Recent studies suggested that interruption of the interaction of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), with the signal-transducing receptor receptor for AGE (RAGE), by administration of the soluble, extracellular ligand-binding domain of RAGE, reversed vascular hyperpermeability and suppressed accelerated atherosclerosis in diabetic rodents. Since the precise molecular target of soluble RAGE in those settings was not elucidated, we tested the hypothesis that predominant specific AGEs within the tissues in disorders such as diabetes and renal failure, N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine (CML) adducts, are ligands of RAGE. We demonstrate here that physiologically relevant CML modifications of proteins engage cellular RAGE, thereby activating key cell signaling pathways such as NF-kappaB and modulating gene expression. Thus, CML-RAGE interaction triggers processes intimately linked to accelerated vascular and inflammatory complications that typify disorders in which inflammation is an established component.

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