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J Am Vet Med Assoc. 1999 Oct 15;215(8):1116-20.

Effects of intramuscular administration of low doses of medetomidine and medetomidine-butorphanol in middle-aged and old dogs.

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  • 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Ohio State University, Columbus 43210, USA.



To determine effects of low doses of medetomidine administered with and without butorphanol and glycopyrrolate to middle-aged and old dogs.


Prospective randomized clinical trial.


88 healthy dogs > or = 5 years old.


Dogs were assigned randomly to receive medetomidine (2, 5, or 10 micrograms/kg [0.9, 2.3, or 4.6 micrograms/lb] of body weight, i.m.) alone or with glycopyrrolate (0.01 mg/kg [0.005 mg/lb], s.c.), medetomidine (10 micrograms/kg) and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg [0.1 mg/lb], i.m.), or medetomidine (10 micrograms/kg), butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg), and glycopyrrolate (0.01 mg/kg). Anesthesia was induced with thiopental sodium and maintained with isoflurane. Degree of sedation and analgesia were determined before and after medetomidine administration. Respiratory rate, heart rate, and mean arterial blood pressure were determined 10 and 30 minutes after medetomidine administration. Adverse effects and amounts of thiopental and isoflurane used were recorded.


Sedation increased after medetomidine administration in 79 of 88 dogs, but decreased in 7 dogs that received 2 or 5 micrograms of medetomidine/kg. Mean postsedation analgesia score and amounts of thiopental and isoflurane used were less in dogs that received medetomidine and butorphanol, compared with other groups. Respiratory rate, heart rate, and blood pressure were not different among groups. Significantly more adverse effects developed in dogs that did not receive glycopyrrolate.


Administration of medetomidine (10 micrograms/kg, i.m.) and butorphanol (0.2 mg/kg, i.m.) induced sedation and analgesia and reduced amounts of thiopental and isoflurane required for anesthesia in middle-aged and old dogs. Glycopyrrolate decreased frequency of medetomidine-associated adverse effects.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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