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Biol Reprod. 1999 Nov;61(5):1347-55.

Long-term effects of postovulatory aging of mouse oocytes on offspring: a two-generational study.

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  • 1Department of Animal Biology, University of Valencia, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia, Spain.


Aims of this study were to analyze the long-term effects of postovulatory aging of mouse oocytes on 1) reproductive traits of parental (F(0)) and first (F(1))-generation females (pregnancy rate, gestation length, litter size, perinatal death, and sex ratio of offspring) and 2) developmental and behavioral variables of F(1) and second-generation (F(2)) offspring (birth weight and weight gain during preweaning development, postnatal day of attainment of immediate righting, spontaneous motor activity, and passive and active conditioned learning ability). Hybrid (C57BL/6JIco x CBA/JIco) females were artificially inseminated at 13 h (control group) or 22 h (oocyte-aged group) after GnRH injection. Experimental (oocyte-aged group) F(0) females exhibited lower pregnancy rate, shortened gestation length, decreased litter size, higher perinatal death of their pups, and increased percentage of male offspring compared to control F(0) females. Postovulatory aging of oocytes was also associated with increased number of growth-retarded pups, delayed development of the righting reflex, and higher spontaneous motor activity and emotionality of F(1) offspring. Postovulatory aging of F(0) oocytes did not affect birth weight, weight gain during preweaning development, passive and active conditioned learning ability of F(1) offspring, or reproductive traits of F(1) females or developmental and behavior variables of F(2) offspring.

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