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Immunol Res. 1999;19(2-3):183-9.

Regulation of inducible gene expression by the transcription factor NF-kappaB.

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  • 1Section of Immunobiology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06526, USA.


The transcription factor NF-kappaB plays a critical role in regulating inducible gene expression in immune responses. The activation of NF-kappaB is regulated at multiple levels, probably reflecting a need to maintain a tight control of its activity. We have recently discovered that direct phosphorylation of NF-kappaB itself is essential for its transcriptional activity and that phosphorylation acts as a switch to determine association of nuclear NF-kappaB with histone acetylases vs deacetylases.

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