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Am J Bot. 1999 Sep;86(9):1325-45.

Systematics of Amaryllidaceae based on cladistic analysis of plastid sequence data.

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  • 1University of Florida, Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center, 3205 College Avenue,Fort Lauderdale, Florida 33314;


Cladistic analyses of plastid DNA sequences rbcL and trnL-F are presented separately and combined for 48 genera of Amaryllidaceae and 29 genera of related asparagalean families. The combined analysis is the most highly resolved of the three and provides good support for the monophyly of Amaryllidaceae and indicates Agapanthaceae as its sister family. Alliaceae are in turn sister to the Amaryllidaceae/Agapanthaceae clade. The origins of the family appear to be western Gondwanaland (Africa), and infrafamilial relationships are resolved along biogeographic lines. Tribe Amaryllideae, primarily South African, is sister to the rest of Amaryllidaceae; this tribe is supported by numerous morphological synapomorphies as well. The remaining two African tribes of the family, Haemantheae and Cyrtantheae, are well supported, but their position relative to the Australasian Calostemmateae and a large clade comprising the Eurasian and American genera, is not yet clear. The Eurasian and American elements of the family are each monophyletic sister clades. Internal resolution of the Eurasian clade only partially supports currently accepted tribal concepts, and few conclusions can be drawn on the relationships of the genera based on these data. A monophyletic Lycorideae (Central and East Asian) is weakly supported. Galanthus and Leucojum (Galantheae pro parte) are supported as sister genera by the bootstrap. The American clade shows a higher degree of internal resolution. Hippeastreae (minus Griffinia and Worsleya) are well supported, and Zephyranthinae are resolved as a distinct subtribe. An Andean clade marked by a chromosome number of 2n = 46 (and derivatives thereof) is resolved with weak support. The plastid DNA phylogenies are discussed in the context of biogeography and character evolution in the family.

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