Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Ann Clin Psychiatry. 1999 Sep;11(3):129-36.

Cigarette smoking and psychiatric disorder in a community sample.

Author information

  • 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City 52242, USA.


We examined the lifetime prevalence of psychiatric disorders in cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in a non-patient sample. First-degree relatives of psychiatric patients (n = 697) and normal controls (n = 360) were interviewed with the Diagnostic Interview Schedule and the Structured Interview for DSM-III Personality Disorders. Using these interviews we diagnosed the major mental (Axis I) disorders and personality (Axis II) disorders. A cigarette smoker was defined as someone who smoked daily for a month or more at some time in their lives. We found that smokers more frequently had a lifetime history of major depression, alcohol and drug abuse/dependence, agoraphobia, unstable/acting out and anxious/fearful personality disorders. In a logistic regression analysis, the only significant variables independently associated with smoking status were the alcohol and drug use disorders. Age was an important modifying variable--the smoking-illness relationship was robust in the youngest age cohort and negligible in the oldest cohort. We conclude that cigarette smokers have increased rates of mood, anxiety, substance use, and personality disorders. However, after controlling for the comorbidity among the disorders only alcohol and drug abuse/dependence were independently associated with smoking. Young smokers had particularly high rates of substance use disorders. This age effect may reflect the impact of a quarter century of health education.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk