Display Settings:


Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Gut. 1999 Sep;45 Suppl 2:II37-42.

Functional gastroduodenal disorders.

Author information

  • 1Committee on Functional Gastroduodenal Disorders, Multinational Working Teams to Develop Diagnostic Criteria for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders (Rome II), Department of Medicine, University of Sydney, Penrith, NSW, Australia.


While widely used in research, the 1991 Rome criteria for the gastroduodenal disorders, especially symptom subgroups in dyspepsia, remain contentious. After a comprehensive literature search, a consensus-based approach was applied, supplemented by input from international experts who reviewed the report. Three functional gastroduodenal disorders are defined. Functional dyspepsia is persistent or recurrent pain or discomfort centered in the upper abdomen; evidence of organic disease likely to explain the symptoms is absent, including at upper endoscopy. Discomfort refers to a subjective, negative feeling that may be characterized by or associated with a number of non-painful symptoms including upper abdominal fullness, early satiety, bloating, or nausea. A dyspepsia subgroup classification is proposed for research purposes, based on the predominant (most bothersome) symptom: (a) ulcer-like dyspepsia when pain (from mild to severe) is the predominant symptom, and (b) dysmotility-like dyspepsia when discomfort (not pain) is the predominant symptom. This classification is supported by recent evidence suggesting that predominant symptoms, but not symptom clusters, identify subgroups with distinct underlying pathophysiological disturbances and responses to treatment. Aerophagia is an unusual complaint characterized by air swallowing that is objectively observed and troublesome repetitive belching. Functional vomiting refers to frequent episodes of recurrent vomiting that is not self-induced nor medication induced, and occurs in the absence of eating disorders, major psychiatric diseases, abnormalities in the gut or central nervous system, or metabolic diseases that can explain the symptom. The current classification requires careful validation but the criteria should be of value in future research.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk