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Acta Biochim Pol. 1999;46(1):51-60.

Differential regulation of signaling pathways for insulin and insulin-like growth factor I.

Author information

  • Endocrinology Section, Metabolism Branch, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1374, USA. WLX@CU.NIH.GOV

Abstract

The insulin receptor (IR) and the insulin-like growth factor receptor I (IGF-IR) have different functions in cell growth, apoptosis, differentation, and transformation. Although some of these differences may be explained by the relative level of receptor expression and receptor structure (alpha and beta subunits), they may also be attributed to differences in intracellular signals generated by insulin and IGF-I. The presence of hybrid receptors (IR alphabeta subunits and IGF-IR alphabeta subunits) making up the heterotetramers has added a new dimension to our understanding of the functional roles of these receptors. However, to date the results of efforts to understand the differences between these two closely related receptors have indicated mostly similarities. For example, both receptors utilize IRS-1/IRS-2 and Shc as immediate downstream adaptors, leading to activation of the Ras, Raf, ERK kinases and PI-3 kinase pathways. We have used the yeast two hybrid system to identify proteins which bind to the activated IGF-IR but not to the IR. The cytoplasmic domain of the IGF-IR was used to screen a human fetal brain library and two isoforms of the 14-3-3 family were identified. 14-3-3 proteins are a highly conserved family of proteins which have recently been shown to interact with other components of the mitogenic and apoptotic signaling pathways, including Raf, BAD, Bcr/Bcr-Abl, middle-T antigen, Ksr, PKC, PI-3 kinase, ASK1 kinase, and cdc25C phosphatase. We also identified human Grb10, an adaptor protein with SH2 domain associated with the IGF-IR beta subunit. Smith's laboratory showed that Grb10 preferentially binds to the IR in intact cells. Using the interaction trap screen (active cytoplasmic domain of the IGF-IR) 55PIK and SOCS-2 proteins were also identified. However, 55PIK and SOCS-2 also interact with the IR in the yeast two hybrid system. These studies raise the possibility that 14-3-3 and Grb10 may play a role in insulin and IGF-I signal transduction and may underlie the observed differences.

PMID:
10453981
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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