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J Exp Biol. 1999 Sep;202(Pt 17):2245-57.

Roots as a site of hydrogen sulfide uptake in the hydrocarbon seep vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp.

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  • 1Tiburon Center for Environmental Studies, San Francisco State University, Tiburon, CA 94920, USA.


Vestimentiferan tubeworms have no mouth or gut, and the majority of their nutritional requirements are provided by endosymbiotic bacteria that utilize hydrogen sulfide oxidation to fix CO(2) into organic molecules. It has been assumed that all vestimentiferans obtain the sulfide, O(2) and CO(2) needed by the bacteria across the plume (gill) surface, but some live in locations where very little sulfide is available in the sea water surrounding the plume. We propose that at least some of these vestimentiferans can grow a posterior extension of their body and tube down into the sea-floor sediment, and that they can use this extension, which we call the 'root', to take up sulfide directly from the interstitial water. In this study of the vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp., found at hydrocarbon seeps in the Gulf of Mexico at depths of approximately 700 m, we measured seawater and interstitial sulfide concentrations in the hydrocarbon seep habitat, determined the structural characteristics of the root tube using transmission electron microscopy, characterized the biochemical composition of the tube wall, and measured the sulfide permeability of the root tube. We found that, while the sulfide concentration is less than 1 (micro)mol l(-)(1) in the sea water surrounding the gills, it can be over 1.5 mmol l(-)(1) at a depth of 10-25 cm in sediment beneath tubeworm bushes. The root tube is composed primarily of giant (&bgr;)-chitin crystallites (12-30 % of total mass) embedded in a protein matrix (50 % of total mass). Root tubes have a mean diameter of 1.4 mm, a mean wall thickness of 70 (micro)m and can be over 20 cm long. The tubeworm itself typically extends its body to the distal tip of the root tube. The root tube wall was quite permeable to sulfide, having a permeability coefficient at 20 degrees C of 0. 41x10(-)(3 )cm s(-)(1), with root tube being 2.5 times more permeable to sulfide than trunk tube of the same diameter. The characteristics of the root suggest that it reaches down to the higher sulfide levels present in the deeper sediment and that it functions to increase the surface area available for sulfide uptake in a manner analogous to a respiratory organ.

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