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J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 1999 Summer;11(3):315-27.

The neuropsychiatry of adult-onset adrenoleukodystrophy.

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  • 1Department of Psychiatry, McMaster University Medical Centre, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.


Adrenoleukodystrophy is an inherited X-linked peroxisomal disorder that preferentially affects the adrenal cortex, testes, and brain and may occur at almost any age. Psychiatric symptomatology is present in many of the adult-onset cases reported in the literature and may be one of the earliest manifestations of the disease. The majority of patients with psychiatric disturbances have signs and symptoms typical of mania. Psychosis and cognitive impairment may also be prominent. Metabolic diseases such as adrenoleukodystrophy are probably underrecognized as a cause of psychiatric illness. Increased awareness of these disorders will lead to accurate diagnosis, appropriate treatment selection, and genetic counseling.

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