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J Chem Neuroanat. 1999 May;16(3):153-65.

The pallidofugal projection system in primates: evidence for neurons branching ipsilaterally and contralaterally to the thalamus and brainstem.

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  • 1Laboratoire de Neurobiologie, Centre de recherche Université Laval Robert-Giffard, Beauport, Québec, Canada.


This paper summarizes the results of some of our previous neuroanatomical studies on the pallidofugal projections in squirrel monkeys and also reports more recent data obtained with double retrograde and single axon tracing methods. Injections of anterograde tracers in the internal pallidum label axons that reach the ventral tier, centromedian and lateral habenular thalamic nuclei, as well as the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus. The pallidofugal projections are composed of axons that branch to the ventral tier and pedunculopontine nuclei, and to ventral tier and centromedian nuclei. Double retrograde labeling with fluorescent tracers and single axon tracing confirm this high degree of collateralization. Furthermore, some pallidal labeled axons cross the midline and arborize contralaterally in the major pallidal targets. Double retrograde fluorescent labeling experiments support these findings. Pallidal axons that branch ipsilaterally as well as contralaterally to the thalamus and brainstem could play a crucial role in the functional organization of primate basal ganglia.

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