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Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 Jul 8;1450(3):191-231.

Functional roles of S100 proteins, calcium-binding proteins of the EF-hand type.

Author information

  • Section of Anatomy, Department of Experimental Medicine and Biochemical Sciences, University of Perugia, Via del Giochetto, C.P. 81 Succ. 3, 06122, Perugia, Italy. donato@unipg.it

Abstract

A multigenic family of Ca2+-binding proteins of the EF-hand type known as S100 comprises 19 members that are differentially expressed in a large number of cell types. Members of this protein family have been implicated in the Ca2+-dependent (and, in some cases, Zn2+- or Cu2+-dependent) regulation of a variety of intracellular activities such as protein phosphorylation, enzyme activities, cell proliferation (including neoplastic transformation) and differentiation, the dynamics of cytoskeleton constituents, the structural organization of membranes, intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis, inflammation, and in protection from oxidative cell damage. Some S100 members are released or secreted into the extracellular space and exert trophic or toxic effects depending on their concentration, act as chemoattractants for leukocytes, modulate cell proliferation, or regulate macrophage activation. Structural data suggest that many S100 members exist within cells as dimers in which the two monomers are related by a two-fold axis of rotation and that Ca2+ binding induces in individual monomers the exposure of a binding surface with which S100 dimers are believed to interact with their target proteins. Thus, any S100 dimer is suggested to expose two binding surfaces on opposite sides, which renders homodimeric S100 proteins ideal for crossbridging two homologous or heterologous target proteins. Although in some cases different S100 proteins share their target proteins, in most cases a high degree of target specificity has been described, suggesting that individual S100 members might be implicated in the regulation of specific activities. On the other hand, the relatively large number of target proteins identified for a single S100 protein might depend on the specific role played by the individual regions that in an S100 molecule contribute to the formation of the binding surface. The pleiotropic roles played by S100 members, the identification of S100 target proteins, the analysis of functional correlates of S100-target protein interactions, and the elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of some S100 members have greatly increased the interest in S100 proteins and our knowledge of S100 protein biology in the last few years. S100 proteins probably are an example of calcium-modulated, regulatory proteins that intervene in the fine tuning of a relatively large number of specific intracellular and (in the case of some members) extracellular activities. Systems, including knock-out animal models, should be now used with the aim of defining the correspondence between the in vitro regulatory role(s) attributed to individual members of this protein family and the in vivo function(s) of each S100 protein.

PMID:
10395934
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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