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Pharmacotherapy. 1999 Jun;19(6):767-81.

Staffing and the cost of clinical and hospital pharmacy services in United States hospitals.

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  • 1Department of Pharmacy Practice, School of Pharmacy, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center-Amarillo 791006, USA.


A survey was mailed to pharmacy directors at all United States acute care medical-surgical hospitals that related to staffing and cost components of hospital pharmacies and clinical services. Cost information was evaluated as both unadjusted and adjusted for severity of illness using the Health Care Financing Administration's Medicare case mix index (CMI). Unadjusted drug costs/occupied bed/year were $13,350+/-6927, a 36% increase over 1992 and a 112% increase over 1989, with statistically significant differences observed by geographic region, hospital size, hospital ownership, and drug delivery system. Annual median pharmacist salary costs/patient associated with centrally based clinical pharmacy services were drug use evaluation $111, in-service education $20, drug information $117, poison information $24, and clinical research $35. Annual median pharmacist salary costs/patient associated with patient-specific clinical services were drug therapy monitoring $5, pharmacokinetic consultation $8, patient counseling $6, medical rounds $4, admission drug histories $7, and drug therapy protocol management (prescribing) $9. Drug costs continue to increase at double-digit rates. Substantial differences exist among various regions of the country with salary and specific cost components. Registered nursing staffing is increasing at twice the rate of pharmacists staffing increases.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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