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ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 1999 Jun;21(4):81-91.

Middle range theory: spinning research and practice to create knowledge for the new millennium.

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  • 1School of Nursing, The University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center, USA.


The foundation of middle range theory reported during the past decade was described and analyzed. A CINAHL search revealed 22 middle range theories that met selected criteria. This foundation is a firm base for new millennium theorizing. Recommendations for future theorizing include: clear articulation of theory names and approaches for generating theories; clarification of concept linkages with inclusion of diagrammed models; deliberate attention to research-practice connections of theories; creation of theories in concert with the disciplinary perspective; and, movement of middle range theories to the front lines of nursing research and practice for further analysis, critique, and development.

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