Send to:

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Immunol Cell Biol. 1999 Jun;77(3):263-71.

Molecular mechanisms of ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis.

Author information

  • 1Cancer Research Unit, Queensland Institute of Medical Research, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.


Ionizing radiation activates not only signalling pathways in the nucleus as a result of DNA damage, but also signalling pathways initiated at the level of the plasma membrane. Proteins involved in DNA damage recognition include poly(ADP ribose) polymerase (PARP), DNA-dependent protein kinase, p53 and ataxia- telangiectasia mutated (ATM). Many of these proteins are inactivated by caspases during the execution phase of apoptosis. Signalling pathways outside the nucleus involve tyrosine kinases such as stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), protein kinase C, ceramide and reactive oxygen species. Recent evidence shows that tumour cells resistant to ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis have defective ceramide signalling. How these signalling pathways converge to activate the caspases is presently unknown, although in some cell types a role for calpain has been suggested.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Nature Publishing Group
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk