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Curr Opin Biotechnol. 1999 Jun;10(3):263-8.

Modern microscopy in biofilm research: confocal microscopy and other approaches.

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  • 1Biofilm Imaging Facility, 10515 Research Drive, Suite 300, Center for Environmental Biotechnology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37932, USA.


Microscopy is the only technique whereby bacterial biofilms can be studied at the single-cell level in situ. Our understanding of biofilm structure, physiology and control hinges on the application of confocal scanning laser microscopy and other advanced microscopic techniques. Gene expression in four dimensions (x,y,z,t), interspecies interactions, and the role of exopolymer are being defined.

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