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Optom Vis Sci. 1999 Apr;76(4):221-8.

Prospective comparison of convergence insufficiency and normal binocular children on CIRS symptom surveys. Convergence Insufficiency and Reading Study (CIRS) group.

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  • 1Southern California College of Optometry, Fullerton 92831, USA.



To test the validity-related evidence of a child and a parent symptom survey developed by the Convergence Insufficiency and Reading Study (CIRS) group.


A case comparison method was used to measure differences in symptoms between 14 school-aged children (ages 8 to 13 years) with Convergence Insufficiency (CI) and 14 children with normal binocular vision (NBV).


A pooled t-test indicated that CI children and their parents scored higher than the NBV children and their parents on the child's survey (p<0.001) and parent's survey (p<0.001), respectively. CI children also scored significantly higher (p<0.03) on the Conners' Rating Scale for Parents.


The results suggest that the CIRS symptom survey is a valid instrument for differentiating CI children from those with normal binocular vision. Additionally, children in this age group were able to respond to a broad range of symptom questions associated with CI.

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