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AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1999 May;172(5):1193-7.

Virtual endoscopy using perspective volume-rendered three-dimensional sonographic data: technique and clinical applications.

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  • 1Department of Radiology, Lucas MRS Center, Stanford University School of Medicine, CA 94305-5488, USA.



We present a technique for obtaining three-dimensional external and virtual endoscopy views of organs using perspective volume-rendered gray-scale and Doppler sonographic data, and we explore potential clinical applications in the carotid artery, the female pelvis, and the bladder.


Using the proposed methods, radiologists will find it possible to create virtual endoscopy and external perspective views using sonographic data. The technique works well for revealing the interior of fluid-filled structures and cavities. However, expected improvements in computer performance and integration with existing sonographic equipment will be necessary for the technique to become practical in the clinical environment.

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