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Science. 1999 Apr 9;284(5412):313-6.

Limb and skin abnormalities in mice lacking IKKalpha.

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  • 1Department of Biochemistry and Core Research for Evolutional Science and Technology (CREST), Japan Science and Technology Corporation, Department of Pathology, Hyogo College of Medicine, 1-1 Mukogawa-cho, Nishinomiya, Hyogo 663-8501, Japan.


The gene encoding inhibitor of kappa B (IkappaB) kinase alpha (IKKalpha; also called IKK1) was disrupted by gene targeting. IKKalpha-deficient mice died perinatally. In IKKalpha-deficient fetuses, limb outgrowth was severely impaired despite unaffected skeletal development. The epidermal cells in IKKalpha-deficient fetuses were highly proliferative with dysregulated epidermal differentiation. In the basal layer, degradation of IkappaB and nuclear localization of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) were not observed. Thus, IKKalpha is essential for NF-kappaB activation in the limb and skin during embryogenesis. In contrast, there was no impairment of NF-kappaB activation induced by either interleukin-1 or tumor necrosis factor-alpha in IKKalpha-deficient embryonic fibroblasts and thymocytes, indicating that IKKalpha is not essential for cytokine-induced activation of NF-kappaB.

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