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Pharmacoeconomics. 1997 Aug;12(2 Pt 1):161-74.

The cost effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination strategies.

Author information

  • 1US Pharmaceuticals Group, Pfizer Inc., New York, New York, USA. GABLE@PFIZER.COM

Erratum in

  • Pharmacoeconomics 1997 Dec;12(6):706.


Pneumonia and influenza, combined, are the sixth leading causes of death in the US. The age-adjusted mortality rate for these diseases increased by 20% between 1979 and 1993, perhaps as a result of the emergence of multi-drug-resistant and penicillin-resistant strains of bacteria that cause pneumonia. Of the approximately $US23 billion annual cost of community-acquired pneumonia, pneumococcal pneumonia is currently estimated to account for up to $US18 billion. Considering the clinical and economic consequences of pneumococcal disease, vaccination appears to be a valuable preventive strategy. However, despite Medicare coverage and the recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunisation Practices (ACIP), only 28% of elderly and high-risk patients received the pneumococcal vaccine in 1993. This article reviews the epidemiology and economic factors that determine the cost effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination strategies. The strategies are taken from a review of 10 published economic analyses of the pneumococcal vaccine. Cost savings and favourable cost-effectiveness ratios are associated with key factors that increase vaccination programme benefits by maximising averted direct medical costs as well as reducing vaccination programme costs, such as through public vaccination campaigns.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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