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J Aging Health. 1993 May;5(2):179-93.

Two shorter forms of the CES-D (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression) depression symptoms index.

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  • 1Center for Health Services Research, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242.


Brief measurement devices can alleviate respondent burden and lower refusal rates in surveys. This article reports on a field test of two shorter forms of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) symptoms index in a multisite survey of persons 65 and older. Factor analyses demonstrate that the briefer forms tap the same symptoms dimensions as does the original CES-D, and reliability statistics indicate that they sacrifice little precision. Simple transformations are presented to how scores from the briefer forms can be compared to those of the original.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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