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Immunol Today. 1999 Feb;20(2):95-101.

Immune modulation by the cholera-like enterotoxins: from adjuvant to therapeutic.

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  • 1University of Bristol, Dept of Pathology and Microbiology, School of Medical Sciences, UK.


Cholera toxin and its close relative, Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin, are potent immunogens and mucosal adjuvants. The recent findings that their B subunits can promote tolerance highlights the complexity of their interactions with the immune system. Here, Neil Williams and colleagues review the mechanisms by which these molecules modulate leukocyte populations and seek to explain the paradox.

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