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Immunol Today. 1999 Feb;20(2):77-82.

Direct and indirect recognition: the role of MHC antigens in graft rejection.

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  • 1Dept of Biology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge 02139, USA.


In graft rejection, T-cell stimulation by donor APCs and self-APCs (presenting peptides of donor origin) has been called 'direct' and 'indirect' recognition, respectively. Here, Dina Gould and Hugh Auchincloss consider the traditional arguments favoring direct recognition and highlight recent findings suggesting the importance of indirect responses, thereby questioning some of our basic concepts of transplantation immunology.

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