Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Phys Med Biol. 1999 Feb;44(2):607-24.

Comparison of four magnetic resonance methods for mapping small temperature changes.

Author information

  • 1Clinic for Radiation Medicine, Charité Medical School-Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin, Germany.


Non-invasive detection of small temperature changes (< 1 degree C) is pivotal to the further advance of regional hyperthermia as a treatment modality for deep-seated tumours. Magnetic resonance (MR) thermography methods are considered to be a promising approach. Four methods exploiting temperature-dependent parameters were evaluated in phantom experiments. The investigated temperature indicators were spin-lattice relaxation time T1, diffusion coefficient D, shift of water proton resonance frequency (water PRF) and resonance frequency shift of the methoxy group of the praseodymium complex (Pr probe). The respective pulse sequences employed to detect temperature-dependent signal changes were the multiple readout single inversion recovery (T One by Multiple Read Out Pulses; TOMROP), the pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE), the fast low-angle shot (FLASH) with phase difference reconstruction, and the classical chemical shift imaging (CSI). Applying these sequences, experiments were performed in two separate and consecutive steps. In the first step, calibration curves were recorded for all four methods. In the second step, applying these calibration data, maps of temperature changes were generated and verified. With the equal total acquisition time of approximately 4 min for all four methods, the uncertainties of temperature changes derived from the calibration curves were less than 1 degree C (Pr probe 0.11 degrees C, water PRF 0.22 degrees C, D 0.48 degrees C and T1 0.93 degrees C). The corresponding maps of temperature changes exhibited slightly higher errors but still in the range or less than 1 degree C (0.97 degrees C, 0.41 degrees C, 0.70 degrees C, 1.06 degrees C respectively). The calibration results indicate the Pr probe method to be most sensitive and accurate. However, this advantage could only be partially transferred to the thermographic maps because of the coarse 16 x 16 matrix of the classical CSI sequence. Therefore, at present the water PRF method appears to be most suitable for MR monitoring of small temperature changes during hyperthermia treatment.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for IOP Publishing Ltd.
    Loading ...
    Write to the Help Desk