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Int J Neurosci. 1998 Dec;96(3-4):177-96.

Executive dysfunctions in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

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  • 1Neuropsychology Program, Faculty of Psychology, San Buenaventura University, Medellin, Colombia.


One hundred and twenty-four male children ranging in age from seven to 12 years-old were selected. The sample was divided into two groups: (1) sixty-two with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children; and (2) sixty-two normal matched controls (N-ADHD). Three tests were individually administered: (1) Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST); (2) Verbal fluency and semantics (animals and fruits); and, (3) Picture Arrangement subtest of the WISC-R. For all the test scores, statistically significant differences were found between both ADHD and N-ADHD groups. Two separate factor analyses were performed, using the normal and ADHD groups. Four factors were found for the N-ADHD group, which accounted for 85.7% of the variance. The factor structure presented some similarities in both groups: Factor 2, 3 and 4 in the control group corresponded to factors 1, 2 and 3 in the ADHD group. Nonetheless, in the ADHD group Factor 1 (Abstraction and Flexibility Factor) was absent. Results are interpreted as supporting the hypothesis of executive dysfunction in children with ADHD.

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