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Front Biosci. 1999 Mar 1;4:D212-5.

Comparison of ZP3 protein sequences among vertebrate species: to obtain a consensus sequence for immunocontraception.

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  • 1Division of Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical College of Ohio, Toledo, OH 43614-5806, USA.


The deduced ZP3 amino acid (aa) sequences of 13 vertebrate species namely mouse, hamster, rabbit, pig, porcine, cow, dog, cat, human, bonnet, marmoset, carp, and frog were compared using the PILEUP and PRETTY alignment programs (GCG, Wisconsin, USA). The published aa sequences obtained from 13 vertebrate species indicated the overall evolutionarily conservation in the N-terminus, central region, and C-terminus of the ZP3 polypeptide. More variations of ZP3 polypeptide sequences were seen in the alignments of carp and frog from the 11 mammalian species making the leader sequence more prominent. The canonical furin proteolytic processing signal at the C-terminus was found in all the ZP3 polypeptide sequences except of carp and frog. In the central region, the ZP3 deduced aa sequences of all the 13 vertebrate species aligned well, and six relatively conserved sequences were found. There are 11 conserved cysteine residues in the central region across all species including carp and frog, indicating that these residues have longer evolutionary history. The ZP3 aa sequence similarities were examined using the GAP program (GCG). The highest aa similarities are observed between the members of the same order within the class mammalia, and also (95.4%) between pig (ungulata) and rabbit (lagomorpha). The deduced ZP3 aa sequences per se may not be enough to build a phylogenetic tree.

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