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Curr Opin Immunol. 1999 Feb;11(1):13-8.

The Toll-receptor family and control of innate immunity.

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  • 1Section of Immunobiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT 06520, USA.


Innate immune recognition is mediated by a system of germline-encoded receptors that recognize conserved molecular patterns that are associated with microbial pathogens. These receptors are coupled to signal transduction pathways that control expression of a variety of inducible immune-response genes. Toll receptors and the associated signaling pathways of nuclear factor kappaB may represent the most ancient host defense system found in mammals, insects and plants.

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