Elements

These XML elements have specific style rules associated with them. This is not a complete list of XML elements included in the tag set. For guidance using elements not listed here, consult the appropriate tag library.

<abstract>
Articles may contain more than one abstract. For each abstract beyond the first, specify the attribute @abstract-type.
Capture only the abstract in this tag. Other metadata like copyright information, citation information, and keywords are not part of the abstract.
Sections within abstracts must have either a <title> or a <label>. If neither exists, do not use <sec>. Do not use @sec-type on <sec> within abstracts.
Use the <trans-abstract> element to tag abstracts in languages different from that of the primary article.
Example: Two abstracts in one article. The first abstract contains multiple sections with titles and no @sec-type. The second abstract contains @abstract-type and no sections. Abstracted from Krieger, et al. PLoS Med 2005 Jul; 2(7): e162.
<abstract>
  <sec>
    <title>Background</title>
    <p>Important controversies exist about the extent to which people's health 
    status as adults is shaped by their living conditions in early life compared 
    to adulthood....</p>
  </sec>
  <sec>
    <title>Methods and Findings</title>
    <p>Our study employed data from a cross-sectional survey and physical 
    examinations of twins in a population-based....</p>
  </sec>
  <sec>
    <title>Conclusion</title>
    <p>These results provide novel evidence that lifetime socioeconomic position 
    influences adult health and highlight the utility of studying social plus 
    biological aspects of twinship.</p>
  </sec>
</abstract>
<abstract abstract-type="toc">
  <p>Differing socioeconomic positions in adult life are associated with
  differences in the health of twins raised together.</p>
</abstract>
<aff>
Set any label or symbol in the <label> element. Do not create symbols or labels in the XML if they do not exist in the published article. Follow copy for all punctuation.
Tag all non-label content as simple text within the element. Do not tag individual address elements in the affiliation. The only exception is email addresses which should be identified in <email>.
See Author/Affiliation Relationship for information on how authors and affiliations are “linked”.
See Samples 1 and 2 for examples.
<aff-alternatives>

2.3

Element is not available in this version.

3.0

Element is not available in this version.

1.0

Used to capture one affiliation in multiple languages or for multiple purposes.
<aff-alternatives id="aff1">
  <aff xml:lang="ja-Jpan">国立言語学博物館</aff>
  <aff xml:lang="en">National Museum of Linguistics</aff>
</aff-alternatives>
		
<alternatives>

2.3

Element is not available in this version.

3.0

<alternatives> may only be contained in the following elements
When alternatives are specified in these elements, PMC will choose the alternative for display based on the following priority (broken down by category).
Category:Included elements:Processing priority:
Display text: <disp-quote>

<boxed-text>
<textual-form>

<graphic>
Formulas and

chemical structures:
<chem-struct>

<chem-struct-wrap>

<disp-formula>

<inline-formula>
<mml:math>

<tex-math>

<graphic>
Signatures: <sig>

<sig-block>
<graphic>

<textual-form>
Supplementary

material
<inline-supplementary-material>

<supplementary-material>
<media>

<graphic>

<table>

<textual-form>
Appendix <app> <textual-form>

<media>
Array <array> <tbody> (inside <table>)

<preformat>

<textual-form>
Figures <fig> <media>

<graphic>
Glossary <glossary> <textual-form>

<graphic>
Table <table-wrap> <table>

<array>

<graphic>

<preformat>

<textual-form>
Table cells <td>, <th> <textual-form>

<media>

<graphic>

If none of these objects exist in the <alternatives> element, the article will fail to pass PMC style. Contact PMC if your data cannot be captured using these combinations.
If a child element of <alternatives> specifies @specific-use "online-only" or "online", that attribute will override PMC's default processing and that object will be displayed in PMC's rendering.
Some elements must not contain a child of <alternatives> that is the same element as itself. The following are not allowed: array, chem-struct, inline-supplementary-material, supplementary-material

1.0

<alternatives> may only be contained in the following elements
When alternatives are specified in these elements, PMC will choose the alternative for display based on the following priority (broken down by category).
Category:Included elements:Processing priority:
Display text: <disp-quote>

<boxed-text>
<textual-form>

<graphic>
Formulas and

chemical structures:
<chem-struct>

<chem-struct-wrap>

<disp-formula>

<inline-formula>
<mml:math>

<tex-math>

<graphic>
Signatures: <sig>

<sig-block>
<graphic>

<textual-form>
Supplementary

material
<inline-supplementary-material>

<supplementary-material>
<media>

<graphic>

<table>

<textual-form>
Appendix <app> <textual-form>

<media>
Array <array> <tbody> (inside <table>)

<preformat>

<textual-form>
Figures <fig> <media>

<graphic>
Glossary <glossary> <textual-form>

<graphic>
Table <table-wrap> <table>

<array>

<graphic>

<preformat>

<textual-form>
Table cells <td>, <th> <textual-form>

<media>

<graphic>

If none of these objects exist in the <alternatives> element, the article will fail to pass PMC style. Contact PMC if your data cannot be captured using these combinations.
If a child element of <alternatives> specifies @specific-use "online-only" or "online", that attribute will override PMC's default processing and that object will be displayed in PMC's rendering.
Some elements must not contain a child of <alternatives> that is the same element as itself. The following are not allowed: array, chem-struct, inline-supplementary-material, supplementary-material
<article>
The @article-type attribute is required and must be one of the values listed below. The @article-type attribute is not the value used in generating the categories for the Table of Contents. Those values are specified in <article-categories>.

attributes:
  • article-type—Most of the articles should have the value of "research-article". Allowed values are: "abstract", "addendum", "announcement", "article-commentary", "book-review", "books-received", "brief-report", "calendar", "case-report", "correction", "data-paper", "discussion", "editorial", "expression-of-concern", "in-brief", "introduction ", "letter", "meeting-report", "news", "obituary", "oration ", "other", "product-review", "reply", "research-article", "retraction", "review-article". See the Article Types for descriptions of these values. (#REQUIRED)
<article-categories>
This is a required element that holds subject and other "sorting" type information about the article. PMC requires that there be a <subj-group> with @subj-group-type="heading" to hold headings used to sort the articles on the TOC.
Required element which must contain exactly one @subj-group-type="heading".
Articles may contain more than one <subj-group> but only one may have @subj-group-type="heading".
<article-id>
Contains any unique identifier assigned to the article, such as DOI, publisher-id, or PubMed ID.
Tag only one identifier per <article-id> tag.
See Sample 2 for examples.

attributes:
  • pub-id-type—Supported values:
    • art-access-id: Generic article accession identifier for interchange and retrieval between archives.
    • arxiv: arXiv archive of electronic preprints.
    • doaj: Directory of Open Access Journals.
    • doi: Digital Object Identifier.
    • isbn: International Standard Book Number.
    • pmcid: PubMed Central identifier.
    • pmid: PubMed identifier.
    • publisher-id: Publisher’s identifier, such as an “article-id”, “artnum”, “identifier”, “article-number”, “pub-id”, etc.
    • publisher-manuscript: Publisher's identifier specific to tracking the manuscript through the editorial process.
    • sici: Serial Item and Contribution Identifier.
    • other: Identifier type not described by those listed above.
    (#REQUIRED)
<article-meta>
Tag all article metadata for each article. All articles must contain <article-categories>, <title-group>, <pub-date>, and <fpage> or <elocation-id>.
<article-title>
Contains only the article title.
Do not use emphasis tags to mimic formatting.
For product reviews, use the explicit title found on the article. If no explicit title is present, use the title of the first (or only) product being reviewed. See Article Title for examples.
See also <subtitle>, <trans-title>.
<author-notes>
Tag notes directly related to the author(s) in <author-note>. If the information can be captured by the attributes available on <contrib>, do not include it as an author note. Tag correspondence information (beyond a simple corresponding author yes/no; see Author Names) in <corresp>. Set all other author-related footnotes in <fn>. Appropriate @fn-type values include:
ValueMeaning
comarticle was communicated by
conarticle was contributed by
conflictConflict of interest statements
current-affcurrent affiliation
deceasedPerson has died since the article was written
equalcontributed equally in the creation of the document
present-addresscontributor's current address
See Sample 1 for an example.
Jane Doe and Marcus Dorsey
Please address all correspondence to Jane Doe at author@affiliation.edu.
  			<contrib-group>
  			<contrib contrib-type="author">
  			<name><surname>Doe</surname>
  			<given-names>Jane</given-names></name>
  			</contrib>
  			<contrib contrib-type="author">
  			<name><surname>Doresy</surname>
  			<given-names>Marcus</given-names></name>
  			</contrib>
  			<contrib-group>
  			... 
  			<author-notes>
  			<fn id="FN1">
  			<p>Please address all correspondence to Dr. Jane Doe at 
  			<email>author@affiliation.edu</email>.</p>
  			</fn>
  			</author-notes>
  		
Laura Kelly*, Jeff Beck, Anne Jones
*Corresponding author
  			<contrib-group>
  			<contrib contrib-type="author" corresp="yes">
  			<name><surname>Kelly</surname>
  			<given-names>Laura</given-names></name>
  			</contrib>
  			<contrib contrib-type="author">
  			<name><surname>Beck</surname>
  			<given-names>Jeff</given-names></name>
  			</contrib>
  			<contrib contrib-type="author">
  			<name><surname>Jones</surname>
  			<given-names>Anne</given-names></name>
  			</contrib>
  			</contrib-group>
  		
<award-id>

2.3

Element is not availalbe in this version. See <contract-num> and <grant-num>.

3.0

Tag only one award id per <award-id> element.

1.0

Tag only one award id per <award-id> element.
<back>
Typical content includes (but is not limited to) appendices (<app-group>), glossaries (<glossary>), reference-lists (<ref-list>), and article-level footnotes (<fn-group>).
Do not set <title> or <label> on <back>.
<body>
Carries all of the article body. It allows <p> and all paragraph-level objects and then repeating recursive sections (<sec>).
Use <sec>> to enclose all subsections within the body or within a section. Do not just set the section titles in <bold> or some other formatting.
Back matter elements, such as <app-group>, <glossary> and <ref-list>, should be tagged in <back>, not at the end of <body>.
<caption>
Within the caption, tag the <title> separately from from the rest of the caption text. Do not include the object’s label in <caption>; use the <label> tag.
Fig 6. JATS to EPUB pipeline.

Graphical representation of the pipeline converting JATS data to EPUB.
<label>Fig 6.</label>
<caption>
  <title>JATS to EPUB pipeline.</title>
  <p>Graphical representation of the pipeline converting JATS data to EPUB.</p>
</caption>
		
<citation>

2.3

Contains a bibliographic description of a work.
<citation> can appear within body or <ref-list>. It should include a citation-type attribute.
See Sample PubMed Central Citations for fully-tagged examples.

3.0

Element is not available in this version. See <element-citation> and <mixed-citation>.

1.0

Element is not available in this version. See <element-citation> and <mixed-citation>.

attributes:
  • citation-type—The type of work being cited (for example, book or journal).(#REQUIRED)
<citation-alternatives>

2.3

Element is not available in this version.

3.0

Element is not available in this version.

1.0

Used to capture one citation in multiple languages, formats, or for multiple purposes. If a <ref> contains multiple citations, do not use <citation-alternatives>; see <ref>.
<ref>
  <citation-alternatives>
    <element-citation publication-type="journal" publication-format="print">
      <name><surname>Petitti</surname><given-names>DB</given-names></name>
      <name><surname>Crooks</surname><given-names>VC</given-names></name>
      <name><surname>Buckwalter</surname><given-names>JG</given-names></name>
      <name><surname>Chiu</surname><given-names>V</given-names></name>
      <article-title>Blood pressure levels before dementia</article-title>
      <source>Arch Neurol</source><year>2005</year><month>Jan</month>
      <volume>62</volume><issue>1</issue><fpage>112</fpage>
      <lpage>116</lpage>
  </element-citation>
  <mixed-citation publication-type="journal" publication-format="print">
      <name><surname>Petitti</surname><given-names>DB</given-names></name>, 
      <name><surname>Crooks</surname><given-names>VC</given-names></name>,
      <name><surname>Buckwalter</surname><given-names>JG</given-names></name>,
      <name><surname>Chiu</surname><given-names>V</given-names></name>.
      <article-title>Blood pressure levels before dementia</article-title>.
      <source>Arch Neurol</source>. <year>2005</year> <month>Jan</month>;
      <volume>62</volume>(<issue>1</issue>):
      <fpage>112</fpage>-<lpage>116</lpage>.
    </mixed-citation>
  </citation-alternatives>
</ref>
		
<collab>
<collab-alternatives>

2.3

Element is not available in this version.

3.0

Element is not available in this version.

1.0

Used to capture one collaborative author in multiple languages or for multiple purposes. See also <name-alternatives>.
<collab-alternatives>
  <collab>脳卒中急性期患者データベース構築研究(JSSRS)グループ</collab> 
  <collab xml:lang="en">JSSRS Group</collab>
</collab-alternatives>
		
<contract-num>

2.3

This element must link to a <contract-sponsor>.

attributes:

3.0

Element is not available in this version. See <funding-group>.

1.0

Element is not available in this version. See <funding-group>.
<contract-sponsor>

2.3

Set <contract-sponsor> only once, even if there are multiple grants listed. It must link to at least one <contract-num>.

attributes:

3.0

Element is not available in this version. See <funding-group>.

1.0

Element is not available in this version. See <funding-group>.
<contrib>

2.3

Tag only one contributor per <contrib> element.
Only use the @corresp, @deceased, and @equal-contrib attributes when the article does not have notes conveying the same information.
Whenever possible, tag the contributor’s affiliation inside the <contrib> tag. See Author/Affiliation Relationship for examples.
See Samples 1 and 2 for examples.

attributes:
  • contrib-type—
    Value is usually "author" or "editor". Attribute is required unless <contrib> is a descendant of <collab>.
  • corresp—
    Set as "yes" if the author is listed as the corresponding author.
  • deceased—
    Set as "yes" if the author is indicated to have passed on.
  • equal-contrib—
    Set as "yes" on each author that is indicated to have "contributed equally to this work".
  • id—
    Only use when tagging Collaborative Authors.
  • rid—
    Only use when tagging Collaborative Authors.

3.0

Tag only one contributor per <contrib> element.
Only use the @corresp, @deceased, and @equal-contrib attributes when the article does not have notes conveying the same information.
Whenever possible, tag the contributor’s affiliation inside the <contrib> tag. See Author/Affiliation Relationship for examples.
See Samples 1 and 2 for examples.

attributes:
  • contrib-type—
    Value is usually "author" or "editor". Attribute is required unless <contrib> is a descendant of <collab>.
  • corresp—
    Set as "yes" if the author is listed as the corresponding author.
  • deceased—
    Set as "yes" if the author is indicated to have passed on.
  • equal-contrib—
    Set as "yes" on each author that is indicated to have "contributed equally to this work".
  • id—
    Do not use.
  • rid—Do not use.

1.0

Tag only one contributor per <contrib> element.
Only use the @corresp, @deceased, and @equal-contrib attributes when the article does not have notes conveying the same information.
Whenever possible, tag the contributor’s affiliation inside the <contrib> tag. See Author/Affiliation Relationship for examples.
See Samples 1 and 2 for examples.

attributes:
  • contrib-type—
    Value is usually "author" or "editor". Attribute is required unless <contrib> is a descendant of <collab>.
  • corresp—
    Set as "yes" if the author is listed as the corresponding author.
  • deceased—
    Set as "yes" if the author is indicated to have passed on.
  • equal-contrib—
    Set as "yes" on each author that is indicated to have "contributed equally to this work".
  • id—
    Do not use. Set contributor identifiers in <contrib-id>.
  • rid—Do not use.
<contrib-group>

2.3

Contains one or more <contrib>
If affiliation information is presented for the entire contributor group, tag the <aff> element inside the <contrib-group>.
See Author/Affiliation Relationships for more information.
See Samples 1 and 2 for examples.

3.0

Contains one or more <contrib>
When used inside <collab> to tag collaboration members, it must not contain descendant <collab> elements.
If affiliation information is presented for the entire contributor group, tag the <aff> element inside the <contrib-group>.
See Author/Affiliation Relationships for more information.
See Samples 1 and 2 for examples.

1.0

Contains one or more <contrib>
When used inside <collab> to tag collaboration members, it must not contain descendant <collab> elements.
If affiliation information is presented for the entire contributor group, tag the <aff> element inside the <contrib-group>.
See Author/Affiliation Relationships for more information.
See Samples 1 and 2 for examples.
<contrib-id>

2.3

Element is not available in this version. See Contributor ID.

3.0

Element is not available in this version. See Contributor ID.

1.0

Identifier of a contibutor as assigned by the authority named in @contrib-id-type.
Do not use on collaborative contributors.
<contrib contrib-type="author">
  <contrib-id contrib-id-type="orcid">http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7361-560X</contrib-id>
  <name><surname>Randall</surname><given-names>LA</given-names></name>
</contrib>
			
<copyright-statement>
Contains the complete copyright statement as it appears in the source.
The contents will usually be the word "Copyright", a copyright symbol, the copyright year, and the name of the copyright holder. Tag the year of copyright in <copyright-year>, whether or not it appears as part of the <copyright-statement>.
Must be contained in <permissions>.
<copyright-year>
Contains only the 4-digit year of copyright.
Must be contained in <permissions>.
<corresp>
Set any label or symbol in the <label> element. Do not create symbols or labels in the XML if they do not exist in the published article. Follow copy for all punctuation.
Tag all non-label content as simple text within the element except for email addresses which should be tagged in <email>.
<day>
Must be an integer from 1-31.
<element-citation>

2.3

Element is not available in this version. See <citation>.

3.0

Do not include punctuation. Tag reference that require punctuation in the XML with <mixed-citation>. See the citation examples for examples using both <element-citation> and <mixed-citation>.

1.0

Do not include punctuation. Tag reference that require punctuation in the XML with <mixed-citation>. See the citation examples for examples using both <element-citation> and <mixed-citation>.
<elocation-id>
Use only when article does not have a <fpage>. Used mostly for electronic-only articles.
See Sample 1 for an example.
<ext-link>
Used to tag link information to objects outside of the article.
Details on tagging links supported by PMC are under External Links.
See additional rules for usage in <license> under Licensing Information.

attributes:
  • ext-link-type—Holds an identifier of the external resource.(#REQUIRED)
  • xlink:href—Holds an identifier of or locator to an object available through or at that resource.(#REQUIRED)
<fig>

2.3

Floating <fig> elements (location in content does not affect meaning) should be tagged at the first reference to the <fig>. Unreferenced floating <fig> elements should be tagged in <floats-wrap>. All floating <fig> elements should include @position="float". Anchored <fig> elements (location in content does affect meaning) must be tagged with @position="anchor".
See Sample 2 for examples.

3.0

Floating <fig> elements (location in content does not affect meaning) should be tagged at the first reference to the <fig>. Unreferenced floating <fig> elements should be tagged in <floats-group>. All floating <fig> elements should include @position="float". Anchored <fig> elements (location in content does affect meaning) must be tagged with @position="anchor".
See Sample 2 for examples.

1.0

Floating <fig> elements (location in content does not affect meaning) should be tagged at the first reference to the <fig>. Unreferenced floating <fig> elements should be tagged in <floats-group>. All floating <fig> elements should include @position="float". Anchored <fig> elements (location in content does affect meaning) must be tagged with @position="anchor".
See Sample 2 for examples.

attributes:
  • id—(#REQUIRED)
  • position—Use "anchor" for an inline-figure, including figures that are contained within another object (<fig>, <table>, <media>) Use "float" for all other figures.
<fig-group>
See Display Object Groups for information on when to use this element.
<fpage>
The first page of the article.
If more than one article shares the same first page, specify @seq. Tag the first article with @seq="a", the second @seq="b", etc. See description of Continuous Makeup Articles.
<floats-wrap>

2.3

Tag all unreferenced, floating objects (<fig>, <table-wrap>) in this element with @position="float".

3.0

Element is not available in this version. See <floats-group>.

1.0

Element is not available in this version. See <floats-group>.
<floats-group>

2.3

Element is not available in this version. See <floats-wrap>.

3.0

Tag all unreferenced, floating objects (<fig>, <table-wrap>) in this element with @position="float".

1.0

Tag all unreferenced, floating objects (<fig>, <table-wrap>) in this element with @position="float".
<fn>

2.3

Tag footnotes specifically relating to contributors in <author-notes>.
Use the appropriate @fn-type, such as "financial-disclosure" or "conflict".
Tag footnotes that apply to the article as a whole in <fn-group> in <back>.
Sponsorship and financial disclosures that apply to the article as a whole must be captured in <fn-group> in <back> with the appropriate @fn-type.
Tag article Disclaimers as <notes> in the front matter.
Tag table footnotes in <table-wrap-foot>.

3.0

Tag footnotes specifically relating to contributors in <author-notes>.
Use the appropriate @fn-type, such as "financial-disclosure" or "conflict".
Tag footnotes that apply to the article as a whole in <fn-group> in <back>.
Information concerning grants, contracts, sponsors, or other funding for the research should be captured in <funding-group>.
Tag article Disclaimers as <notes> in the front matter.
Tag table footnotes in <table-wrap-foot>.

1.0

Tag footnotes specifically relating to contributors in <author-notes>.
Use the appropriate @fn-type, such as "financial-disclosure" or "conflict".
Tag footnotes that apply to the article as a whole in <fn-group> in <back>.
Information concerning grants, contracts, sponsors, or other funding for the research should be captured in <funding-group>.
Tag article Disclaimers as <notes> in the front matter.
Tag table footnotes in <table-wrap-foot>.

attributes:
  • id—(#REQUIRED)
  • symbol—Do not use. Capture information in <label>.
<front>
Carries all of the article frontmatter. It allows <journal-meta>, <article-meta>, and <notes>.
<journal-meta> and <article-meta> are required.
<funding-group>

2.3

Element is not available in this version. See <contract-num>, <contract-sponsor>, <grant-num>, <grant-sponsor>.

3.0

Tag only information about the reported research funding. Do not tag copyright or license information in <funding-group>.

1.0

Tag only information about the reported research funding. Do not tag copyright or license information in <funding-group>.
<funding-statement>

2.3

Element is not available in this version. See <contract-num>, <contract-sponsor>, <grant-num>, <grant-sponsor>.

3.0

Tag the complete funding statement in this element, regardless of whether or not other elements within the <funding-group> duplicate the information. PMC displays the content of <funding-statement> and does not use other funding elements to build display content.

1.0

Tag the complete funding statement in this element, regardless of whether or not other elements within the <funding-group> duplicate the information. PMC displays the content of <funding-statement> and does not use other funding elements to build display content.
<grant-num>

2.3

This element must link to a <contract-sponsor>.

attributes:

3.0

Element is not available in this version. See <funding-group>.

1.0

Element is not available in this version. See <funding-group>.
<grant-sponsor>

2.3

Set <grant-sponsor> only once, even if there are multiple grants listed. It must link to at least one <grant-num>.

attributes:
  • id—
    A target for the corresponding <grant-num>.
    (#REQUIRED)

3.0

Element is not available in this version. See <funding-group>.

1.0

Element is not available in this version. See <funding-group>.
<graphic>
Describes an external file containing a still image. Usually contained within <fig>.
Use <inline-graphic> for images appearing in the flow of text.

attributes:
  • xlink:href—The name of the file.(#REQUIRED)
<history>
Contains one or more <date> elements describing the article's processing history.
Common history dates include received, accepted, and revised.
If an article is put online after the official print publication, capture that within <history> as <date> with @date-type="online". This only applies to journals following the Print-only and Print–Online Coincident models of publication described in <pub-date>.
See Sample 1 for an example.
<inline-supplementary-material>

2.3

Element is not available in this version.

3.0

Describes supplementary material that must be displayed in the textual flow of an article.
Include the full filename, including file extension, in the @xlink:href value on <inline-supplementary-material>.

1.0

Describes supplementary material that must be displayed in the textual flow of an article.
Include the full filename, including file extension, in the @xlink:href value on <inline-supplementary-material>.
<issn>

2.3

Contains the ISSN(s) for the journal. Articles must have at least one <issn>.
See Sample 2 for examples.

3.0

Contains the ISSN(s) for the journal. Articles must have at least one <issn>.
See Sample 2 for examples.

1.0

Contains the media-specific (print, electronic) ISSN(s) for the journal. Articles must have at least one <issn>.
Do not use for linking ISSN. See <issn-l>.
See Sample 2 for examples.

attributes:
  • pub-type—Set as "ppub" for a print ISSN and "epub" for an electronic ISSN. If a journal has both, include two successive <issn> tags.(#REQUIRED)
<issn-l>

2.3

Element is not available in this version. See <issn>

3.0

Element is not available in this version. See <issn>

1.0

Capture only the linking ISSN of the publication. For media-specific ISSNs, use <issn>.
<issue>
Tag numeric issues as an integer only. If Roman numerals are used, tag as the Roman numeral only. Do not include the word "issue" in the tag.
Tag "Part" issues as "Pt [integer]". If the Part or Supplement has no integer, then tag as "Pt" or "Suppl" only.
Do not use <supplement> to identify a supplementary issue in <article-meta>, instead capture as "Suppl [integer]" in <issue>.
If there is no issue number, do not tag at all.
<journal-id>
Multiple journal-ids may be tagged. Specify type of id in @journal-id-type. If the PubMed abbreviation is available, tag with @journal-id-type="nlm-ta".

attributes:
  • journal-id-type—(#REQUIRED)
<journal-meta>
Contains all information about the journal.
Requires <issn>, <journal-id>, <journal-title>, and <publisher>.
<journal-title>
Contains the complete title of the journal in which the article is published.
<label>
Contains label information only (Table 1, Figure 1). Does not include <caption> data, such as <title>.
Do not include emphasis that encompasses the entire contents.
Fig 6. JATS to EPUB pipeline.

Graphical representation of the pipeline converting JATS data to EPUB.
<label>Fig 6.</label>
<caption>
  <title>JATS to EPUB pipeline.</title>
  <p>Graphical representation of the pipeline converting JATS data to EPUB.</p>
</caption>
		
<license>

2.3

Contains license information for the article. Do not tag copyright information in the <license> tag.
Must be contained in <permissions>.
Whenever possible, include a URI to the license description using @xlink:href.
When tagging a URI in <license>, include the URI either in @xlink:href on <license> or in an <ext-link> within the license text. Do not include it in both places. See Licensing Information for additional information.
See Sample 1 for an example.
<license license-type="open-access" 
   xlink:href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/">
	<p>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the 
	Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, 
	distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original 
	work is properly cited.</p>
</license>
	
<license license-type="open-access">
   <p>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 
      3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit 
      <ext-link ext-link-type="uri"  xlink:href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/">
      http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/</ext-link>
   </p>
</license>
  		

3.0

Contains license information for the article. Do not tag copyright information in the <license> tag.
Must be contained in <permissions>.
Whenever possible, include a URI to the license description using @xlink:href.
When tagging a URI in <license>, include the URI either in @xlink:href on <license> or in an <ext-link> within the license text. Do not include it in both places. See Licensing Information for additional information.
See Sample 1 for an example.
<license license-type="open-access" 
  xlink:href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/">
  <license-p>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the 
  Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, 
  distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original 
  work is properly cited.</license-p>
</license>
	
<license license-type="open-access">
   <license-p>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 
      3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit 
      <ext-link ext-link-type="uri"  xlink:href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/">
      http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/</ext-link>
   </license-p>
</license>
  		

1.0

Contains license information for the article. Do not tag copyright information in the <license> tag.
Must be contained in <permissions>.
Whenever possible, include a URI to the license description using @xlink:href.
When tagging a URI in <license>, include the URI either in @xlink:href on <license> or in an <ext-link> within the license text. Do not include it in both places. See Licensing Information for additional information.
See Sample 1 for an example.
<license license-type="open-access" 
  xlink:href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.5/">
  <license-p>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the 
  Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, 
  distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original 
  work is properly cited.</license-p>
</license>
	
<license license-type="open-access">
   <license-p>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 
      3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit 
      <ext-link ext-link-type="uri"  xlink:href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/">
      http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/</ext-link>
   </license-p>
</license>
  		
<list>
<list> may or may not have a title. It must have one <list-item> for each point in the list.
See Sample 1 and Sample 4 for examples.

attributes:
  • list-type—Allowed values: "order", "bullet", "alpha-lower", "alpha-upper", "roman-lower", "roman-upper", "simple".(#REQUIRED)
  • prefix-word—This is for a word that should prefix the generated label in the list, eg. "Step".
<list-item>
Contains exacty one item per tag. Each item may contain multiple <p> elements.
Do not use <label> unless @list-type="simple".
<lpage>
The numeric last page of the article. Tag the value even if it is the same as the first page.
<media>
Describes an external file containing a media object.

attributes:
  • xlink:href—The name of the file, including file extension(#REQUIRED)
  • mimetype—Mimetype of the file, such as video or application
  • mime-subtype—Mime-subtype of the file, such as pdf, xls, or mp4
<mixed-citation>

2.3

Element is not available in this version. See <citation>.

3.0

Maintain all punctuation from the original copy. Tag a minimum of the following tags if they are part of the original citation: <name> of the author, editor, etc.; <source>; <year>; pagination; DOI.
See the citation examples for examples using both <element-citation> and <mixed-citation>.

1.0

Maintain all punctuation from the original copy. Tag a minimum of the following tags if they are part of the original citation: <name> of the author, editor, etc.; <source>; <year>; pagination; DOI.
See the citation examples for examples using both <element-citation> and <mixed-citation>.
<mml:math>
<mml:math> is the root element for MathML.
Breaking long formulas
Do not set long formulas in tables <mml:mtable> just to get them to break. Capture potential or desired breaks with <mml:mspace> with @linebreak="goodbreak". If the formula was broken in a print version, enter a <mml:mspace> with @linebreak="goodbreak" at that point, and the break will be used if necessary during rendering.
Subscripts and Superscripts with Fences:
Elements <mml:msub>, <mml:msup>, and <mml:msubsup> must enclose the entire contents of the expression they affect, not just the closing fence. Fences include: ] } ) x03009; x0232A; x027E9; .
(x + y)2
Correct Tagging (where the 2 is superscript 
to the entire expression):
<mml:math>
   <mml:msup>
      <mml:mrow>
         <mml:mo>(</mml:mo>
         <mml:mi>x</mml:mi>
         <mml:mo>+</mml:mo>
         <mml:mi>y</mml:mi>
         <mml:mo>)</mml:mo>
      </mml:mrow>
      <mml:mn>2</mml:mn>
   </mml:msup>
</mml:math>
		
Incorrect Tagging:
<mml:math>
   <mml:mo>(</mml:mo>
   <mml:mi>x</mml:mi>
   <mml:mo>+</mml:mo>
   <mml:mi>y</mml:mi>
   <mml:msup>
      <mml:mo>)</mml:mo>
      <mml:mn>2</mml:mn>
   </mml:msup>
</mml:math>
		
Child Element Restrictions:
These elements require exactly 2 child elements. If either of the sub-expressions is complex, wrap it in an <mml:mrow>.

  • <mml:mfrac> — the first child is the numerator, the second the denominator.
  • <mml:mroot> — the first child is the base, the second is the index.
  • <mml:msub> — the first child is the base, the second is the subscript expression.
  • <mml:msup> — the first child is the base, the second is the superscript expression.
  • <mml:munder> — the first child is the base, the second is the underscript.
  • <mml:mover> — the first child is the base, the second is the overscript.
These elements require exactly 3 child elements. If any of the sub-expressions is complex, wrap it in an <mml:mrow>.

  • <mml:munderover> — the first child is the base, the second is the underscript, the third is the overscript.
  • <mml:msubsup> — the first child is the base, the second is the subscript expression, the third is the superscript expression. The subscript and superscript will be stacked.
Allowed only as children of <mml:mmultiscripts>

  • <mml:mprescripts>
  • <mml:none>
Allowed only as children of <mml:semantics>

  • <mml:annotation>
  • <mml:annotation-xml>
Allowed only as a child of <mml:math>

  • <mml:semantics>
MathML Attribute Requirements:
The MathML 1.01 style attributes listed below have been deprecated in MathML 2.0, and should not be used. http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/REC-MathML2-20031021/chapter3.html#presm.deprecatt
Namevaluesdefault
fontsizenumber v-unitinherited
fontweightnormal | boldinherited
fontstylenormal | italicnormal (except on
<mi>
)
fontfamilystring | css-fontfamilyinherited
color#rgb | #rrggbb | html-color-nameinherited
These depricated attributes should be replaced with the appropriate new mathematics style attributes, described here: http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/REC-MathML2-20031021/chapter3.html#presm.commatt
@mathvariant:
Only the following values are allowed for this attribute: ( normal | bold | italic | bold-italic | double-struck | bold-fraktur | script | bold-script | fraktur | sans-serif | bold-sans-serif | sans-serif-italic | sans-serif-bold-italic | monospace )
@numalign, @denomalign, @columnalign:
Only the following values are allowed for these attributes: ( left | center | right )
@rowalign:
Only the following values are allowed for this attribute: ( top | bottom | center | baseline | axis )
@groupalign:
Only the following values are allowed for this attribute: ( left | right | center | decimalpoint )
@equalrows, @equalcolumns, @bevelled:
Only the following values are allowed for these attributes: ( true | false )
@display:
Only the following values are allowed for this attribute: ( inline | block )

attributes:
  • id—(#REQUIRED)
<month>
Must be an integer from 1-12.
Tag any month range (January-March) as a <season>.
<name-alternatives>

2.3

Element is not available in this version.

3.0

Element is not available in this version.

1.0

Use when tagging a single name in multiple languages or forms.
<contrib contrib-type="author">
  <name-alternatives>
    <name>
      <surname>Canut Jordana</surname>
      <given-names>M Isabel</given-names>
    </name>
    <name content-type="index">
      <surname>Canut</surname>
      <given-names>MI</given-names>
    </name>
  </name-alternatives>
</contrib>
		
<name-alternatives>
  <name name-style="eastern" xml:lang="ja-Jpan">
    <surname>中西</surname>
    <given-names>秀彦</given-names>
  </name>
  <name name-style="western" xml:lang="en">
    <surname>Nakanishi</surname>
    <given-names>Hidehiko</given-names>
  </name>
  <name name-style="eastern" xml:lang="ja-Kana">
    <surname>ナカニシ</surname>
    <given-names>ヒデヒコ</given-names>
  </name>
</name-alternatives>
		
<notes>
Used for article-level notes. These often appear at the beginning or end of the article.
Tag notes relating to the author(s) in <author-notes>.
Tag article Disclaimers as <notes> in the front matter.
Tag Notes in Proof as <notes> in the back matter.

attributes:
  • notes-type—Set as "disclaimer" for article disclaimers. Set as "note-in-proof" for notes in proof.
<on-behalf-of>
Used when a contributor is participating as a representative of an organization. Do not confuse with <collab>.
Rodrigo Teresa, Joan A Caylà, and Martí Casals for the Working Group on Completion of Tuberculosis Treatment in Spain
<contrib-group>
  <contrib contrib-type="author" corresp="yes" id="A1">
    <name>
      <surname>Rodrigo</surname>
      <given-names>Teresa</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author" id="A2">
    <name>
      <surname>Caylà</surname>
      <given-names>Joan A</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author" id="A3">
    <name>
      <surname>Casals</surname>
      <given-names>Martí</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <on-behalf-of>Working Group on Completion of Tuberculosis Treatment in Spain</on-behalf-of>
</contrib-group>
<open-access>

2.3

Element is not available in this version.

3.0

Used to hold text describing funding used to pay any open access fees associated with the article's publication. Do not include the license text (see <license>).

1.0

Used to hold text describing funding used to pay any open access fees associated with the article's publication. Do not include the license text (see <license>).
<p>
Paragraph. Contains text of article.
<product>
Tag the citation information of the product as completely as possible. Tag information that cannot be described by elements in a <comment>. Tag associated images (book covers, for example) with <inline-graphic> within product.
See Book Reviews and Product Reviews for additional information. See Sample 4 for an example.
<pub-date>

2.3

Tag only one publication date per <pub-date> element.
Articles cannot have more than one <pub-date> with the same @pub-type.
Any article with a specified @pub-type="collection" must also have one <pub-date> with @pub-type="epub". Epub dates must contain a <day>, <month>, and <year>.
The most common @pub-type values are "epub", "ppub", "epub-ppub", "epreprint", and "collection". When an article is published in more than one medium, there will be more than one <pub-date>. The number and types of tagged <pub-date> elements depends on the publication model of the journal.
There are two basic classes of publication: issue-based publication and article-based publication.
  • Issue-based publication is when an entire issue is "published" at one time — in print, online, or both. Issue publication dates and article publication dates coincide, so the issue publication date is all that is needed.
  • Article-based publication is when articles are "published" individually or in small groups. They may be published in Issues (eg, all of the articles published online in June 2005 are in the "June" issue) which may or may not be printed. Even if the articles are not collected in Issues, they are collected in some way - perhaps by random collection dates, by volume, or by year. This "collection" date usually does not coincide with the article publication date.
Here are several examples of publishing models and their corresponding publication dates.
Print-only Model — This is the traditional print model. Articles are collected by the editor, formed into issues, and published and issue-worth at a time. All articles have the same publication date, which coincides with the Issue cover date. For this model, each article will have <pub-date> with @pub-type="ppub". In this model, the issues may go "online" the same day as the print date or sometime thereafter, but the official publication date is controlled by the Issue cover date.
Print–Online Coincident Model — This is a similar model to the Print-only Model, except there is a little more emphasis on the fact that the online version of the issue is published on the same date. For this model, each article will have <pub-date> with @pub-type="epub-ppub".
Print with Electronic Articles Prepublished Model — In this model, some or all of the articles are published (their official publication date) online before the publication date of the print issue. For this model, each prepublished article will have <pub-date> with @pub-type="epub" to represent its individual online publication date, and every article will have a <pub-date> with @pub-type="ppub" to represent the printed issue date.
Print with Electronic "Preprints" — This is similar to the "Print with Electronic Articles Prepublished Model" where articles from an issue appear online before the publication date of the issue. The difference, however, is that the online versions of the articles are electronic preprints and are not officially published. All of the articles are published on the issue cover date, and they all have the same publication date. For this model, each preprint article will have <pub-date> with @pub-type="epreprint" to represent date it was available online, and every article will have a <pub-date> with @pub-type="ppub" to represent the printed issue date.
Articles Published Online and Collected into Print Issues Model — For this model, each article will have <pub-date> with @pub-type="epub" to represent its individual publication date and a <pub-date> with @pub-type="ppub" to represent publication date of the print issue.
Articles Published Online and Collected into "Issues" Online Model — Issues here do not need to be named "Issue 1", "Issue 2", etc. These are just collections of articles online. The collecting might be done by dates (Months, Quarters, Years) or by Volume. For this model, each article will have <pub-date> with @pub-type="epub" to represent its individual publication date and a <pub-date> with @pub-type="collection" to represent the date of the online collection it belongs in. This date may be a day/month/year, month/year, season/year, or just year.
<pub-date pub-type="epub">
   <day>1</day>
   <month>1</month>
   <year>2013</year>
</pub-date>
<pub-date pub-type="collection">
   <month>1</month>
   <year>2013</year>
</pub-date>
		

attributes:
  • pub-type—
    The values depend on the model of publication used. See above for details.

3.0

Tag only one publication date per <pub-date> element.
Articles cannot have more than one <pub-date> with the same @pub-type.
Any article with a specified @pub-type="collection" must also have one <pub-date> with @pub-type="epub". Epub dates must contain a <day>, <month>, and <year>.
The most common @pub-type values are "epub", "ppub", "epub-ppub", "epreprint", and "collection". When an article is published in more than one medium, there will be more than one <pub-date>. The number and types of tagged <pub-date> elements depends on the publication model of the journal.
There are two basic classes of publication: issue-based publication and article-based publication.
  • Issue-based publication is when an entire issue is "published" at one time — in print, online, or both. Issue publication dates and article publication dates coincide, so the issue publication date is all that is needed.
  • Article-based publication is when articles are "published" individually or in small groups. They may be published in Issues (eg, all of the articles published online in June 2005 are in the "June" issue) which may or may not be printed. Even if the articles are not collected in Issues, they are collected in some way - perhaps by random collection dates, by volume, or by year. This "collection" date usually does not coincide with the article publication date.
Here are several examples of publishing models and their corresponding publication dates.
Print-only Model — This is the traditional print model. Articles are collected by the editor, formed into issues, and published and issue-worth at a time. All articles have the same publication date, which coincides with the Issue cover date. For this model, each article will have <pub-date> with @pub-type="ppub". In this model, the issues may go "online" the same day as the print date or sometime thereafter, but the official publication date is controlled by the Issue cover date.
Print–Online Coincident Model — This is a similar model to the Print-only Model, except there is a little more emphasis on the fact that the online version of the issue is published on the same date. For this model, each article will have <pub-date> with @pub-type="epub-ppub".
Print with Electronic Articles Prepublished Model — In this model, some or all of the articles are published (their official publication date) online before the publication date of the print issue. For this model, each prepublished article will have <pub-date> with @pub-type="epub" to represent its individual online publication date, and every article will have a <pub-date> with @pub-type="ppub" to represent the printed issue date.
Print with Electronic "Preprints" — This is similar to the "Print with Electronic Articles Prepublished Model" where articles from an issue appear online before the publication date of the issue. The difference, however, is that the online versions of the articles are electronic preprints and are not officially published. All of the articles are published on the issue cover date, and they all have the same publication date. For this model, each preprint article will have <pub-date> with @pub-type="epreprint" to represent date it was available online, and every article will have a <pub-date> with @pub-type="ppub" to represent the printed issue date.
Articles Published Online and Collected into Print Issues Model — For this model, each article will have <pub-date> with @pub-type="epub" to represent its individual publication date and a <pub-date> with @pub-type="ppub" to represent publication date of the print issue.
Articles Published Online and Collected into "Issues" Online Model — Issues here do not need to be named "Issue 1", "Issue 2", etc. These are just collections of articles online. The collecting might be done by dates (Months, Quarters, Years) or by Volume. For this model, each article will have <pub-date> with @pub-type="epub" to represent its individual publication date and a <pub-date> with @pub-type="collection" to represent the date of the online collection it belongs in. This date may be a day/month/year, month/year, season/year, or just year.
<pub-date pub-type="epub">
   <day>1</day>
   <month>1</month>
   <year>2013</year>
</pub-date>
<pub-date pub-type="collection">
   <month>1</month>
   <year>2013</year>
</pub-date>
		

attributes:
  • pub-type—
    The values depend on the model of publication used. See above for details.

1.0

Tag only one publication date per <pub-date> element.
Articles cannot have more than one <pub-date> with the same combination of @date-type and @publication-format.
Any article with a specified @date-type="collection" must also have one <pub-date> with @date-type="pub" and @publication-format="electronic". Epub dates must contain a <day>, <month>, and <year>.
The most common @publication-format values are "electronic" and "print"; the most common @date-type values are "pub" and "collection". When an article is published in more than one medium, there will be more than one <pub-date>. The number and types of tagged <pub-date> elements depends on the publication model of the journal.
There are two basic classes of publication: issue-based publication and article-based publication.
  • Issue-based publication is when an entire issue is "published" at one time — in print, online, or both. Issue publication dates and article publication dates coincide, so the issue publication date is all that is needed.
  • Article-based publication is when articles are "published" individually or in small groups. They may be published in Issues (eg, all of the articles published online in June 2005 are in the "June" issue) which may or may not be printed. Even if the articles are not collected in Issues, they are collected in some way - perhaps by random collection dates, by volume, or by year. This "collection" date usually does not coincide with the article publication date.
Here are several examples of publishing models and their corresponding publication dates.
Print-only Model — This is the traditional print model. Articles are collected by the editor, formed into issues, and published and issue-worth at a time. All articles have the same publication date, which coincides with the Issue cover date. For this model, each article will have <pub-date> with @date-type="pub" and @publication-format="print". In this model, the issues may go "online" the same day as the print date or sometime thereafter, but the official publication date is controlled by the Issue cover date.
Print–Online Coincident Model — This is a similar model to the Print-only Model, except there is a little more emphasis on the fact that the online version of the issue is published on the same date. For this model, each article will have <pub-date> with @date-type="pub" and @publication-format="electronic-print".
Print with Electronic Articles Prepublished Model — In this model, some or all of the articles are published (their official publication date) online before the publication date of the print issue. For this model, each prepublished article will have <pub-date> with @pub-type="epub" to represent its individual online publication date, and every article will have a <pub-date> with @date-type="pub" and @publication-format="print" to represent the printed issue date.
Print with Electronic "Preprints" — This is similar to the "Print with Electronic Articles Prepublished Model" where articles from an issue appear online before the publication date of the issue. The difference, however, is that the online versions of the articles are electronic preprints and are not officially published. All of the articles are published on the issue cover date, and they all have the same publication date. For this model, each preprint article will have <pub-date> with @date-type="preprint" and @publication-format="electronic" to represent date it was available online, and every article will have a <pub-date> with @date-type="pub" and @publication-format="print" to represent the printed issue date.
Articles Published Online and Collected into Print Issues Model — For this model, each article will have <pub-date> with @date-type="pub" and @publication-format="electronic" to represent its individual publication date and a <pub-date> with @date-type="pub" and @publication-format="print" to represent publication date of the print issue.
Articles Published Online and Collected into "Issues" Online Model — Issues here do not need to be named "Issue 1", "Issue 2", etc. These are just collections of articles online. The collecting might be done by dates (Months, Quarters, Years) or by Volume. For this model, each article will have <pub-date> with @date-type="pub" and @publication-format="electronic" to represent its individual publication date and a <pub-date> with @date-type="collection" and @publication-format="electronic" to represent the date of the online collection it belongs in. This date may be a day/month/year, month/year, season/year, or just year.
<pub-date date-type="pub" publication-format="electronic">
  <day>1</day>
  <month>1</month
  <year>2013</year>
</pub-date>
<pub-date date-type="collection" publication-format="electronic">
  <month>1</month>
  <year>2013</year>
</pub-date>
		
<pub-date date-type="pub" publication-format="print">
   <day>1</day>
   <month>1</month>
   <year>2013</year>
</pub-date>
  		

attributes:
  • date-type—
    Must be used with @publication-format; suggested values include pub, corrected, retracted, preprint. Must not be used with @pub-type.
  • publication-format—
    Must be used with @date-type; values include "print", "electronic", or "electronic-print". Must not be used with @pub-type.
<ref-list>
<ref-list> contains a set of references (<ref>). It may or may not have a title.
<ref>

2.3

<ref> contains a reference of some kind. It will usually contain a single <citation> or <nlm-citation>; however, complex References may contain multiple citations or a combination of text and citations.
See References for details on complex references.
See Sample PubMed Central Citations for fully-tagged examples of <citation> and <nlm-citation>.

3.0

<ref> contains a reference of some kind. It will usually contain a single <mixed-citation> or <element-citation>; however, complex References may contain multiple citations or a combination of text and citations.
See References for details on complex references.

1.0

<ref> contains a reference of some kind. It will usually contain a single <mixed-citation> or <element-citation>; however, complex References may contain multiple citations or a combination of text and citations.
See References for details on complex references.
<related-article>
Use this element's attributes to describe the related article's citation information. When using a DOI as the citation, tag the DOI in @xlink:href and @ext-link-type="doi". Element may be empty.
PMC generates links between articles using this tag. The following chart shows the PMC-generated link text for the most common related-article combinations. "Source" refers to the article containing the <related-article> and "Target" refers to the article being pointed to.
Source @article-typeSource @related-article-typeSource-to-Target Link TextTarget @article-typeTarget-to-Source Link Text
addendumaddended-articleSee the article [citation].[any]See the addendum [citation].
[any]addendumSee the addendum [citation].addendumSee the article [citation].
[any]alt-languageThis article is also available in [language]. See [article title]. (In language of the target article.)[any]This article is also available in [language]. See [article title]. (In language of the target article.)
article-commentarycommentary-articleSee the article [citation].[any except discussion, editorial, letter]See the commentary [citation].
[any]article-referenceSee the article [citation].
discussioncommentary-articleSee the article [citation].[any]See the discussion [citation].
editorialcommentary-articleSee the article [citation].[any]See the editorial [citation].
expression-of-concernobject-of-concernThis is an expression of concern about the following article: [citation][any]The editors have expressed concern about this article. See [citation].
lettercommentary-articleSee the article [citation].[any]See the letter [citation].
[any]companionSee [citation].[any]See [citation].
correctioncorrected-articleThis corrects the article [citation].[any]This article has been corrected. See [citation].
replyletterSee the letter [citation].letterSee the reply [citation].
retractionretracted-articleThis retracts the article [citation].[any]This article has been retracted. See [citation].
peer-reviewpeer-reviewed-articleSee the peer-reviewed article [citation].[any]See the peer-review [citation].
[any]peer-reviewSee the peer-review [citation].peer-reviewSee the peer-reviewed article [citation].
See Samples 1 and 5 for examples.

attributes:
  • related-article-type—Value describes the type of article being pointed to. Only use a value listed in the table above.(#REQUIRED)
  • ext-link-type—Required if @xlink:href is specified.
  • journal-id—Identifier for the journal containing the <related-article>
  • journal-id-type—Example: "nlm-ta" for PubMed title abbreviation. Required if @journal-id is specified.
  • id—(#REQUIRED)
  • page—Include only the first page of the target article.
  • xlink:href—May include target article's identifier (DOI, PubMed ID). If specified, @ext-link-type is required.
<related-object>

2.3

Element is not available in this version.

3.0

Use this tag to identify related objects. May be used to identify journal articles.
Use this element's attributes to identify the target object citation. The following objects must always exist together:
  • @source-id and @source-id-type
  • @document-id and @document-id-type
  • @object-id and @object-id-type
Specify the type of target object for the most specific unit. For example, if the <related-object> is a table in a chapter of a book, the table is the most specific unit so specify @object-type="table". If the <related-object> is a chapter of a book, the most specific unit is the chapter so the correct attribute is @document-type="chapter".
When specifying a journal article, the following attributes must be present:
  • @document-id
  • @document-id-type: Must be a DOI, a PubMed ID, or a PubMed Central ID
  • @document-type: Must be set to "article"
  • @id: XML ID of the <related-object> element
  • @link-type: Must be an approved value. See the approved values for @related-article-type described in <related-article>.

1.0

Use this element's attributes to identify the target object citation. The following objects must always exist together:
  • @source-id and @source-id-type
  • @document-id and @document-id-type
  • @object-id and @object-id-type
Specify the type of target object for the most specific unit. For example, if the <related-object> is a table in a chapter of a book, the table is the most specific unit so specify @object-type="table". If the <related-object> is a chapter of a book, the most specific unit is the chapter so the correct attribute is @document-type="chapter".
When specifying a journal article, the following attributes must be present:
  • @document-id
  • @document-id-type: Must be a DOI, a PubMed ID, or a PubMed Central ID
  • @document-type: Must be set to "article"
  • @id: XML ID of the <related-object> element
  • @link-type: Must be an approved value. See the approved values for @related-article-type described in <related-article>.
<response>
Tag fully, including metadata. Any <journal-meta> or <article-meta> not explicitly tagged in <front> or <front-stub> is inherited from the parent <article>.
See fully-tagged examples in Response and Sub-Article

attributes:
  • id—(#REQUIRED)
  • response-type—Values: reply, discussion, addendum(#REQUIRED)
<season>
This is a text element. Values might include "Spring", "Fall-Winter", or month ranges like "Apr-Jun".
Do not include the year in <season>.
<sec>
All sections must contain <title>, <label>, or both. If it does not have either, do not tag it as a section.

attributes:
  • sec-type—Identify on first level-sections. Suggested values include: materials, methods, materials|methods, intro, conclusions, results
<sig-block>
Used to capture signatures. If multiple signatures appear, capture in a single <sig-block>.
<styled-content>

2.3

Element is not available in this version.

3.0

PMC does not guarantee that the display specified in the attributes will be implemented on the HTML rendering of the article and strongly discourages using this element.

1.0

PMC does not guarantee that the display specified in the attributes will be implemented on the HTML rendering of the article and strongly discourages using this element.
<sub-article>
Tag fully, including metadata. Any <journal-meta> or <article-meta> not explicitly tagged in <front> or <front-stub> is inherited from the parent <article>.
See fully-tagged examples in Meeting Reports/Abstracts and Response and Sub-Article

attributes:
  • article-type—Specify. Use the same values described on <article>
  • id—(#REQUIRED)
<subject>
Defines the subjects of an article within <article-categories>. These are often used to indicate the Table of Contents headings for an article.
Do not include any <xref> within <subject>. Any article-level footnotes that must be referenced should be referenced from the <article-title>.
Do not include formatting elements unless necessary to convey emphasis. See Formatted Text.
<supplement>
Do not use. See <issue>.
<supplementary-material>
Tag <supplementary-material> in a single <sec> with @sec-type value "supplementary-material" at the end of <body>.
May include <label> or <caption>. Should include <media> or <graphic> to identify the supplemental file. File description in <media> or <graphic> must include the file name (including file extension) in @xlink:href; <media> also requires @mime-type, and @mime-subtype.

attributes:
  • content-type—Specify as "local-data"
<table>
Tables should be fully tagged, not included as images.
See Samples 1 and 2 for examples.

attributes:
  • frame—Specify as "hsides"
  • rules—Specify as "groups"
<table-wrap>

Contains all parts of a single table.


attributes:
  • position—Use "anchor" for an inline-table, including tables that are contained within another object (<fig>, <table>, <media>) Use "float" for all others.
<table-wrap-group>
See Display Object Groups for information on when to use this element.
<tex-math>
This element should not be used to set math unless it is supplied as an alternative representation of an expression. See Alternate Versions of a Single Object for details.
If <tex-math> is supplied as alternate tagging for an expression, make sure:
  • That each expression is a complete Lateχ document, including header.
  • That all characters are represented in Lateχ notation and not with Unicode™ characters.

attributes:
  • id—(#REQUIRED)
<title-group>

2.3

This holds the <article-title>.
It also allows <subtitle>, <trans-title>, <alt-title>.
If there is a footnote to the title, put the <xref> (with @ref-type="fn") in the <article-title> or <subtitle> element, and set the <fn> in the <fn-group> in <back>.
If the article is a book review, see Book Reviews and <article-title> for special rules.

3.0

This holds the <article-title>.
It also allows <subtitle>, <trans-title-group>, <alt-title>.
If there is a footnote to the title, put the <xref> (with @ref-type="fn") in the <article-title> or <subtitle> element, and set the <fn> in the <fn-group> in <back>.
If the article is a book review, see Book Reviews and <article-title> for special rules.

1.0

This holds the <article-title>.
It also allows <subtitle>, <trans-title-group>, <alt-title>.
If there is a footnote to the title, put the <xref> (with @ref-type="fn") in the <article-title> or <subtitle> element, and set the <fn> in the <fn-group> in <back>.
If the article is a book review, see Book Reviews and <article-title> for special rules.
<trans-abstract>
Used to tag the article <abstract> in a language different than that of the parent <article>.
Tag the <title> of the abstract, even if it is equivalent to "Abstract" in the alternate language.
Excerpted from Bull World Health Organ. 2012 December 1; 90(12): 878–886. 10.2471/BLT.12.106419. Used with permission.
<abstract>
  <sec><title>Objective</title>
  <p>To estimate the population of Peru living in the vicinity of active or former mining 
    operations that could be exposed to lead from contaminated soil.</p>
  </sec>
</abstract>
<trans-abstract xml:lang="fr">
  <title>Résumé</title>
  <sec>
    <title>Objectif</title>
    <p>Estimer la population péruvienne vivant à proximité d'une exploitation 
      minière, ancienne ou active, qui pourrait être exposée au plomb de sols 
      contaminés.</p>
    </sec>  
</trans-abstract>
<trans-abstract xml:lang="es">
  <title>Resumen</title>
  <sec>
    <title>Objetivo</title>
    <p>Calcular qué parte de la población peruana residente en las inmediaciones
      de explotaciones mineras activas o cerradas podría estar expuesta a suelos contaminados 
      con plomo.</p>
  </sec>
</trans-abstract>
		

attributes:
  • xml:lang—(#REQUIRED)
<trans-title>

2.3

Contains the <article-title> in a language different than that of the parent article.
Must include @xml:lang

3.0

Contains the <article-title> in a language different than that of the parent article.
@xml:lang should be included on parent <trans-title-group>, not <trans-title>.

1.0

Contains the <article-title> in a language different than that of the parent article.
@xml:lang should be included on parent <trans-title-group>, not <trans-title>.
<trans-title-group>

2.3

Element is not available in this version.

3.0

Only tag elements in a single language in the <trans-title-group>. To tag titles in multiple languages, use one <trans-title-group> per language.
Each element contained within the <trans-title-group> must have a corresponding element in the primary language (do not tag <trans-subtitle> if no <subtitle> exists).

1.0

Only tag elements in a single language in the <trans-title-group>. To tag titles in multiple languages, use one <trans-title-group> per language.
Each element contained within the <trans-title-group> must have a corresponding element in the primary language (do not tag <trans-subtitle> if no <subtitle> exists).

attributes:
<volume>
Tag numeric volumes as an integer only. If Roman numerals are used, tag as the Roman numeral only. Do not include the word "volume" or any related abbreviation in the tag.
If the citation is part of a special issue with no specified volume (like "Supplement 2005"), tag "Suppl" in <volume> and "2005" in <year>.
If there is no volume number, do not tag at all.
<xref>
Used to references to objects within the article. Do not include emphasis or punctuation within the element.
Do not tag multiple id values in @rid.
Do not wrap <xref> in <sup>, PMC CSS stylesheets defined during the journal setup process will handle this.
Tag lists of cross references by including one <xref> element for each referenced object.
The changes in education level demonstrate the changing attitudes. 1, 2, 5
<p>The changes in education level demonstrate the changing 
attitudes.<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="B1">1</xref>
<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="B2">2</xref>
<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="B5">5</xref></p>
Tag ranges of cross references by including an <xref> for the first item, an en-dash (–), and an <xref> for the last item. PMC will display the range as tagged.
The changes in education level demonstrate the changing attitudes. 1–3
<p>The changes in education level demonstrate the changing attitudes.
<xref ref-type="bibr" rid="B1">1</xref>–<xref ref-type="bibr" 
   rid="B3">3</xref></p>
Set the "linked text" inside of the <xref>. PMC will not generate the content of the link based on the @rid.
The @ref-type must match the target object in the XML, regardless of the object's label.
Correct:
<xref ref-type="table" rid="T1">Table 1<xref>
. . . 
<table-wrap id="T1"> . . . </table-wrap>
Incorrect:
<xref ref-type="table" rid="T1">Table 1<xref>
. . . 
<fig id="T1">
  <label>Table 1</label>
</fig>	
See Sample 1 for an example.

attributes:
  • ref-type—The type of object being referenced: "app", "author-notes", "bibr", "boxed-text", "disp-formula", "fig", "fn", "list", "sec", "supplementary-material", "table", "table-fn".(#REQUIRED)
  • rid—The @id of the referenced object.(#REQUIRED)
  • id—Do not use.
<year>
Must be 4-digit number.