• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of embojLink to Publisher's site
EMBO J. Nov 1985; 4(11): 2961–2969.
PMCID: PMC554605

Isolation of caudal, a Drosophila homeo box-containing gene with maternal expression, whose transcripts form a concentration gradient at the pre-blastoderm stage

Abstract

We report the isolation and characterization of caudal (cad), a previously unknown Drosophila homeo box-containing gene from the 38E region on the left arm of the second chromosome. This homeo box has diverged from the prototype sequence in Antennapedia, but contains subregions which are highly homologous. By Northern analysis and in situ hybridization experiments two transcripts of ˜2.4 kb were found to accumulate in nurse cells and in the oocyte during oogenesis. These transcripts generate a transient concentration gradient along the antero-posterior axis at the syncytial blastoderm stage. At the cellular blastoderm stage transcripts accumulate in a single band from 13–19% egg length at the posterior end. One zygotic transcript of 2.6 kb is detected. At later stages this transcript is localized in ectodermally and endodermally derived tissues such as the proctodeum, the Malpighian tubules and the posterior midgut. The 2.6-kb transcript is detectable until the onset of metamorphosis.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.9M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Akam ME. The location of Ultrabithorax transcripts in Drosophila tissue sections. EMBO J. 1983;2(11):2075–2084. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Carrasco AE, McGinnis W, Gehring WJ, De Robertis EM. Cloning of an X. laevis gene expressed during early embryogenesis coding for a peptide region homologous to Drosophila homeotic genes. Cell. 1984 Jun;37(2):409–414. [PubMed]
  • Chan LN, Gehring W. Determination of blastoderm cells in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1971 Sep;68(9):2217–2221. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chirgwin JM, Przybyla AE, MacDonald RJ, Rutter WJ. Isolation of biologically active ribonucleic acid from sources enriched in ribonuclease. Biochemistry. 1979 Nov 27;18(24):5294–5299. [PubMed]
  • Colberg-Poley AM, Voss SD, Chowdhury K, Gruss P. Structural analysis of murine genes containing homoeo box sequences and their expression in embryonal carcinoma cells. Nature. 314(6013):713–718. [PubMed]
  • Denell RE. Homoeosis in Drosophila. II. a Genetic Analysis of Polycomb. Genetics. 1978 Oct;90(2):277–289. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Duncan IM. Polycomblike: a gene that appears to be required for the normal expression of the bithorax and antennapedia gene complexes of Drosophila melanogaster. Genetics. 1982 Sep;102(1):49–70. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fjose A, McGinnis WJ, Gehring WJ. Isolation of a homoeo box-containing gene from the engrailed region of Drosophila and the spatial distribution of its transcripts. Nature. 1985 Jan 24;313(6000):284–289. [PubMed]
  • Frei E, Baumgartner S, Edström JE, Noll M. Cloning of the extra sex combs gene of Drosophila and its identification by P-element-mediated gene transfer. EMBO J. 1985 Apr;4(4):979–987. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Fyrberg EA, Mahaffey JW, Bond BJ, Davidson N. Transcripts of the six Drosophila actin genes accumulate in a stage- and tissue-specific manner. Cell. 1983 May;33(1):115–123. [PubMed]
  • Hafen E, Levine M, Garber RL, Gehring WJ. An improved in situ hybridization method for the detection of cellular RNAs in Drosophila tissue sections and its application for localizing transcripts of the homeotic Antennapedia gene complex. EMBO J. 1983;2(4):617–623. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hafen E, Kuroiwa A, Gehring WJ. Spatial distribution of transcripts from the segmentation gene fushi tarazu during Drosophila embryonic development. Cell. 1984 Jul;37(3):833–841. [PubMed]
  • Kaufman TC, Lewis R, Wakimoto B. Cytogenetic Analysis of Chromosome 3 in DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER: The Homoeotic Gene Complex in Polytene Chromosome Interval 84a-B. Genetics. 1980 Jan;94(1):115–133. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kuroiwa A, Hafen E, Gehring WJ. Cloning and transcriptional analysis of the segmentation gene fushi tarazu of Drosophila. Cell. 1984 Jul;37(3):825–831. [PubMed]
  • Langer PR, Waldrop AA, Ward DC. Enzymatic synthesis of biotin-labeled polynucleotides: novel nucleic acid affinity probes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Nov;78(11):6633–6637. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Langer-Safer PR, Levine M, Ward DC. Immunological method for mapping genes on Drosophila polytene chromosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Jul;79(14):4381–4385. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lawrence PA, Morata G. The early development of mesothoracic compartments in Drosophila. An analysis of cell lineage and fate mapping and an assessment of methods. Dev Biol. 1977 Mar;56(1):40–51. [PubMed]
  • Levine M, Hafen E, Garber RL, Gehring WJ. Spatial distribution of Antennapedia transcripts during Drosophila development. EMBO J. 1983;2(11):2037–2046. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Levine M, Rubin GM, Tjian R. Human DNA sequences homologous to a protein coding region conserved between homeotic genes of Drosophila. Cell. 1984 Oct;38(3):667–673. [PubMed]
  • Lewis EB. A gene complex controlling segmentation in Drosophila. Nature. 1978 Dec 7;276(5688):565–570. [PubMed]
  • Maniatis T, Hardison RC, Lacy E, Lauer J, O'Connell C, Quon D, Sim GK, Efstratiadis A. The isolation of structural genes from libraries of eucaryotic DNA. Cell. 1978 Oct;15(2):687–701. [PubMed]
  • McGinnis W, Shermoen AW, Beckendorf SK. A transposable element inserted just 5' to a Drosophila glue protein gene alters gene expression and chromatin structure. Cell. 1983 Aug;34(1):75–84. [PubMed]
  • McGinnis W, Levine MS, Hafen E, Kuroiwa A, Gehring WJ. A conserved DNA sequence in homoeotic genes of the Drosophila Antennapedia and bithorax complexes. Nature. 308(5958):428–433. [PubMed]
  • McGinnis W, Garber RL, Wirz J, Kuroiwa A, Gehring WJ. A homologous protein-coding sequence in Drosophila homeotic genes and its conservation in other metazoans. Cell. 1984 Jun;37(2):403–408. [PubMed]
  • McGinnis W, Hart CP, Gehring WJ, Ruddle FH. Molecular cloning and chromosome mapping of a mouse DNA sequence homologous to homeotic genes of Drosophila. Cell. 1984 Oct;38(3):675–680. [PubMed]
  • Melton DA, Krieg PA, Rebagliati MR, Maniatis T, Zinn K, Green MR. Efficient in vitro synthesis of biologically active RNA and RNA hybridization probes from plasmids containing a bacteriophage SP6 promoter. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 Sep 25;12(18):7035–7056. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Müller MM, Carrasco AE, DeRobertis EM. A homeo-box-containing gene expressed during oogenesis in Xenopus. Cell. 1984 Nov;39(1):157–162. [PubMed]
  • Pabo CO, Sauer RT. Protein-DNA recognition. Annu Rev Biochem. 1984;53:293–321. [PubMed]
  • Poole SJ, Kauvar LM, Drees B, Kornberg T. The engrailed locus of Drosophila: structural analysis of an embryonic transcript. Cell. 1985 Jan;40(1):37–43. [PubMed]
  • Rozek CE, Davidson N. Drosophila has one myosin heavy-chain gene with three developmentally regulated transcripts. Cell. 1983 Jan;32(1):23–34. [PubMed]
  • Sanger F, Nicklen S, Coulson AR. DNA sequencing with chain-terminating inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Dec;74(12):5463–5467. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Scott MP, Weiner AJ. Structural relationships among genes that control development: sequence homology between the Antennapedia, Ultrabithorax, and fushi tarazu loci of Drosophila. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Jul;81(13):4115–4119. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shepherd JC, McGinnis W, Carrasco AE, De Robertis EM, Gehring WJ. Fly and frog homoeo domains show homologies with yeast mating type regulatory proteins. Nature. 1984 Jul 5;310(5972):70–71. [PubMed]
  • Southern EM. Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. J Mol Biol. 1975 Nov 5;98(3):503–517. [PubMed]
  • Steward R, McNally FJ, Schedl P. Isolation of the dorsal locus of Drosophila. Nature. 1984 Sep 20;311(5983):262–265. [PubMed]
  • Struhl G. A gene product required for correct initiation of segmental determination in Drosophila. Nature. 1981 Sep 3;293(5827):36–41. [PubMed]
  • Struhl G. Role of the esc+ gene product in ensuring the selective expression of segment-specific homeotic genes in Drosophila. J Embryol Exp Morphol. 1983 Aug;76:297–331. [PubMed]
  • Wharton KA, Yedvobnick B, Finnerty VG, Artavanis-Tsakonas S. opa: a novel family of transcribed repeats shared by the Notch locus and other developmentally regulated loci in D. melanogaster. Cell. 1985 Jan;40(1):55–62. [PubMed]
  • Wieschaus E, Gehring W. Clonal analysis of primordial disc cells in the early embryo of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 1976 Jun;50(2):249–263. [PubMed]

Articles from The EMBO Journal are provided here courtesy of The European Molecular Biology Organization

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...