• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of embojLink to Publisher's site
EMBO J. 1982; 1(3): 311–315.
PMCID: PMC553041

Sequence of a 1.26-kb DNA fragment containing the structural gene for E.coli initiation factor IF3: presence of an AUU initiator codon.


The nucleotide sequence of a 1.26-kb pair DNA fragment containing the structural gene for Escherichia coli initiation factor IF3 has been determined. An open reading frame of 540 nucleotides is found at the position predicted by genetic studies. The amino-acid sequence deduced from the DNA sequence accounts for a molecular weight 20 530. The important feature of the coding DNA sequence is the presence of AUU as the translational initiator codon. It is 11 bases downstream of the center of a GGAGG sequence, which can strongly pair with the sequence CCUCC near the 3' terminus of 16S rRNA. The primary DNA sequence in the region of the AUU initiator codon and its role in compensating a reduced codon-anticodon interaction in initiation complex formation are discussed.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (863K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Anderson S, Bankier AT, Barrell BG, de Bruijn MH, Coulson AR, Drouin J, Eperon IC, Nierlich DP, Roe BA, Sanger F, et al. Sequence and organization of the human mitochondrial genome. Nature. 1981 Apr 9;290(5806):457–465. [PubMed]
  • Atkins JF. Is UAA or UGA part of the recognition signal for ribosomal initiation? Nucleic Acids Res. 1979 Oct 25;7(4):1035–1041. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Belin D, Hedgpeth J, Selzer GB, Epstein RH. Temperature-sensitive mutation in the initiation codon of the rIIB gene of bacteriophage T4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Feb;76(2):700–704. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Borer PN, Dengler B, Tinoco I, Jr, Uhlenbeck OC. Stability of ribonucleic acid double-stranded helices. J Mol Biol. 1974 Jul 15;86(4):843–853. [PubMed]
  • Brauer D, Wittmann-Liebold B. The primary structure of the initiation factor IF-3 from Escherichia coli. FEBS Lett. 1977 Jul 15;79(2):269–275. [PubMed]
  • Clewell DB. Nature of Col E 1 plasmid replication in Escherichia coli in the presence of the chloramphenicol. J Bacteriol. 1972 May;110(2):667–676. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ganoza MC. The Ayerst Award Lecture 1976. Novel factors in protein biosynthesis. Can J Biochem. 1977 Apr;55(4):267–281. [PubMed]
  • Ganoza MC, Fraser AR, Neilson T. Nucleotides contiguous to AUG affect translational initiation. Biochemistry. 1978 Jul 11;17(14):2769–2775. [PubMed]
  • Howe JG, Hershey JW. A sensitive immunoblotting method for measuring protein synthesis initiation factor levels in lysates of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1981 Dec 25;256(24):12836–12839. [PubMed]
  • Keller EB, Calvo JM. Alternative secondary structures of leader RNAs and the regulation of the trp, phe, his, thr, and leu operons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Dec;76(12):6186–6190. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lee F, Yanofsky C. Transcription termination at the trp operon attenuators of Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium: RNA secondary structure and regulation of termination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Oct;74(10):4365–4369. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Mackie GA. Nucleotide sequence of the gene for ribosomal protein S20 and its flanking regions. J Biol Chem. 1981 Aug 10;256(15):8177–8182. [PubMed]
  • Maxam AM, Gilbert W. Sequencing end-labeled DNA with base-specific chemical cleavages. Methods Enzymol. 1980;65(1):499–560. [PubMed]
  • Movva NR, Nakamura K, Inouye M. Regulatory region of the gene for the ompA protein, a major outer membrane protein of Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Jul;77(7):3845–3849. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Pichon JL, Coeroli C, Marchis-Mouren G. Studies on ribosomal protein biosynthesis in an RNA polymerase temperature sensitive E. coli mutant. Mol Gen Genet. 1977 Feb 15;150(3):257–264. [PubMed]
  • Post LE, Arfsten AE, Reusser F, Nomura M. DNA sequences of promoter regions for the str and spc ribosomal protein operons in E. coli. Cell. 1978 Sep;15(1):215–229. [PubMed]
  • Post LE, Nomura M. DNA sequences from the str operon of Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1980 May 25;255(10):4660–4666. [PubMed]
  • Pribnow D. Nucleotide sequence of an RNA polymerase binding site at an early T7 promoter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1975 Mar;72(3):784–788. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rosenberg M, Court D. Regulatory sequences involved in the promotion and termination of RNA transcription. Annu Rev Genet. 1979;13:319–353. [PubMed]
  • Shine J, Dalgarno L. The 3'-terminal sequence of Escherichia coli 16S ribosomal RNA: complementarity to nonsense triplets and ribosome binding sites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1974 Apr;71(4):1342–1346. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Springer M, Graffe M, Hennecke H. Specialized transducing phage for the initiation factor 3 gene in Escherichia coli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Sep;74(9):3970–3974. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Springer M, Graffe M, Grunberg-Manago M. Genetic organization of the E. coli chromosome around the structural gene for initiation factor IF3 (infC). Mol Gen Genet. 1979 Feb 1;169(3):337–343. [PubMed]
  • Steege DA. 5'-Terminal nucleotide sequence of Escherichia coli lactose repressor mRNA: features of translational initiation and reinitiation sites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Oct;74(10):4163–4167. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tinoco I, Jr, Borer PN, Dengler B, Levin MD, Uhlenbeck OC, Crothers DM, Bralla J. Improved estimation of secondary structure in ribonucleic acids. Nat New Biol. 1973 Nov 14;246(150):40–41. [PubMed]
  • Volckaert G, Fiers W. Studies on the bacteriophage MS2. G-U-G as the initiation codon of the A-protein cistron. FEBS Lett. 1973 Sep 1;35(1):91–96. [PubMed]

Articles from The EMBO Journal are provided here courtesy of The European Molecular Biology Organization


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...