• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Oct 1990; 87(19): 7732–7736.
PMCID: PMC54822

Identification of three related human GRO genes encoding cytokine functions.

Abstract

The product of the human GRO gene is a cytokine with inflammatory and growth-regulatory properties; GRO is also called MGSA for melanoma growth-stimulatory activity. We have identified two additional genes, GRO beta and GRO gamma, that share 90% and 86% identity at the deduced amino acid level with the original GRO alpha isolate. One amino acid substitution of proline in GRO alpha by leucine in GRO beta and GRO gamma leads to a large predicted change in protein conformation. Significant differences also exist in the 3' untranslated region, including different numbers of ATTTA repeats associated with mRNA instability. A 122-base-pair region in the 3' region is conserved among the three GRO genes, and a part of it is also conserved in the Chinese hamster genome, suggesting a role in regulation. DNA hybridization with oligonucleotide probes and partial sequence analysis of the genomic clones confirm that the three forms are derived from related but different genes. Only one chromosomal locus has been identified, at 4q21, by using a GRO alpha cDNA clone that hybridized to all three genes. Expression studies reveal tissue-specific regulation as well as regulation by specific inducing agents, including interleukin 1, tumor necrosis factor, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and lipopolysaccharide.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.1M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Anisowicz A, Bardwell L, Sager R. Constitutive overexpression of a growth-regulated gene in transformed Chinese hamster and human cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Oct;84(20):7188–7192. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Anisowicz A, Zajchowski D, Stenman G, Sager R. Functional diversity of gro gene expression in human fibroblasts and mammary epithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Dec;85(24):9645–9649. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Deuel TF, Keim PS, Farmer M, Heinrikson RL. Amino acid sequence of human platelet factor 4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1977 Jun;74(6):2256–2258. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Matsushima K, Morishita K, Yoshimura T, Lavu S, Kobayashi Y, Lew W, Appella E, Kung HF, Leonard EJ, Oppenheim JJ. Molecular cloning of a human monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDNCF) and the induction of MDNCF mRNA by interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor. J Exp Med. 1988 Jun 1;167(6):1883–1893. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schmid J, Weissmann C. Induction of mRNA for a serine protease and a beta-thromboglobulin-like protein in mitogen-stimulated human leukocytes. J Immunol. 1987 Jul 1;139(1):250–256. [PubMed]
  • Peveri P, Walz A, Dewald B, Baggiolini M. A novel neutrophil-activating factor produced by human mononuclear phagocytes. J Exp Med. 1988 May 1;167(5):1547–1559. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Castor CW, Miller JW, Walz DA. Structural and biological characteristics of connective tissue activating peptide (CTAP-III), a major human platelet-derived growth factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1983 Feb;80(3):765–769. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Luster AD, Unkeless JC, Ravetch JV. Gamma-interferon transcriptionally regulates an early-response gene containing homology to platelet proteins. Nature. 1985 Jun 20;315(6021):672–676. [PubMed]
  • Wolpe SD, Sherry B, Juers D, Davatelis G, Yurt RW, Cerami A. Identification and characterization of macrophage inflammatory protein 2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Jan;86(2):612–616. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Sugano S, Stoeckle MY, Hanafusa H. Transformation by Rous sarcoma virus induces a novel gene with homology to a mitogenic platelet protein. Cell. 1987 May 8;49(3):321–328. [PubMed]
  • Bedard PA, Alcorta D, Simmons DL, Luk KC, Erikson RL. Constitutive expression of a gene encoding a polypeptide homologous to biologically active human platelet protein in Rous sarcoma virus-transformed fibroblasts. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Oct;84(19):6715–6719. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Richmond A, Balentien E, Thomas HG, Flaggs G, Barton DE, Spiess J, Bordoni R, Francke U, Derynck R. Molecular characterization and chromosomal mapping of melanoma growth stimulatory activity, a growth factor structurally related to beta-thromboglobulin. EMBO J. 1988 Jul;7(7):2025–2033. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Oquendo P, Alberta J, Wen DZ, Graycar JL, Derynck R, Stiles CD. The platelet-derived growth factor-inducible KC gene encodes a secretory protein related to platelet alpha-granule proteins. J Biol Chem. 1989 Mar 5;264(7):4133–4137. [PubMed]
  • Sporn SA, Eierman DF, Johnson CE, Morris J, Martin G, Ladner M, Haskill S. Monocyte adherence results in selective induction of novel genes sharing homology with mediators of inflammation and tissue repair. J Immunol. 1990 Jun 1;144(11):4434–4441. [PubMed]
  • Eierman DF, Johnson CE, Haskill JS. Human monocyte inflammatory mediator gene expression is selectively regulated by adherence substrates. J Immunol. 1989 Mar 15;142(6):1970–1976. [PubMed]
  • Thomas PS. Hybridization of denatured RNA and small DNA fragments transferred to nitrocellulose. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1980 Sep;77(9):5201–5205. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Southern EM. Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. J Mol Biol. 1975 Nov 5;98(3):503–517. [PubMed]
  • Caput D, Beutler B, Hartog K, Thayer R, Brown-Shimer S, Cerami A. Identification of a common nucleotide sequence in the 3'-untranslated region of mRNA molecules specifying inflammatory mediators. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Mar;83(6):1670–1674. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shaw G, Kamen R. A conserved AU sequence from the 3' untranslated region of GM-CSF mRNA mediates selective mRNA degradation. Cell. 1986 Aug 29;46(5):659–667. [PubMed]
  • Ralph WW, Webster T, Smith TF. A modified Chou and Fasman protein structure algorithm. Comput Appl Biosci. 1987 Sep;3(3):211–216. [PubMed]
  • Green CJ, Charles RS, Edwards BF, Johnson PH. Identification and characterization of PF4varl, a human gene variant of platelet factor 4. Mol Cell Biol. 1989 Apr;9(4):1445–1451. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Thornton SC, Mueller SN, Levine EM. Human endothelial cells: use of heparin in cloning and long-term serial cultivation. Science. 1983 Nov 11;222(4624):623–625. [PubMed]
  • Tekamp-Olson P, Gallegos C, Bauer D, McClain J, Sherry B, Fabre M, van Deventer S, Cerami A. Cloning and characterization of cDNAs for murine macrophage inflammatory protein 2 and its human homologues. J Exp Med. 1990 Sep 1;172(3):911–919. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Compound
    Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • Gene
    Gene
    Gene links
  • Gene (nucleotide)
    Gene (nucleotide)
    Records in Gene identified from shared sequence links
  • GEO Profiles
    GEO Profiles
    Related GEO records
  • HomoloGene
    HomoloGene
    HomoloGene links
  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • Nucleotide
    Nucleotide
    Published Nucleotide sequences
  • OMIM
    OMIM
    OMIM record citing PubMed
  • Protein
    Protein
    Published protein sequences
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...