Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Dec 15; 88(24): 11435–11439.

Isolation and primary structure of pituitary human galanin, a 30-residue nonamidated neuropeptide.


Galanin (Gal), a 29-amino acid C-terminally amidated neuropeptide, is widely distributed throughout the central and peripheral nervous system. The primary structures of rat and bovine Gals were derived from the cDNA sequences of their precursors. To elucidate the structure of human Gal (hGal), we extracted 280 postmortem pituitaries in trifluoroacetic acid and purified hGal binding activity, by three successive HPLC steps, to homogeneity based on a radioreceptor assay. The primary structure of hGal was determined by automatic Edman degradation to be Gly-Trp-Thr-Leu-Asn-Ser-Ala-Gly-Tyr-Leu-Leu- Gly-Pro-His-Ala-Val-Gly-Asn-His-Arg-Ser-Phe-Ser-Asp-Lys-Asn-Gly-Leu-Thr- Ser-COOH. The structure was confirmed by plasma desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry, revealing a mass of 3156.1. Compared to the 29-residue porcine, rat, and bovine Gals, hGal uniquely comprises 30 amino acids possessing an additional nonamidated serine residue as C terminus. The nonamidated carboxylic group at the C terminus was proven by synthesis of amidated and nonamidated hGal and by mass spectrometry after selective methylation of all free carboxylic groups. Synthetic hGal possesses full biological activity on isolated rat fundus muscle strips.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.0M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Tatemoto K, Rökaeus A, Jörnvall H, McDonald TJ, Mutt V. Galanin - a novel biologically active peptide from porcine intestine. FEBS Lett. 1983 Nov 28;164(1):124–128. [PubMed]
  • Gentleman SM, Falkai P, Bogerts B, Herrero MT, Polak JM, Roberts GW. Distribution of galanin-like immunoreactivity in the human brain. Brain Res. 1989 Dec 29;505(2):311–315. [PubMed]
  • Michener SR, Aimone LD, Yaksh TL, Go VL. Distribution of galanin-like immunoreactivity in the pig, rat and human central nervous system. Peptides. 1990 Nov-Dec;11(6):1217–1223. [PubMed]
  • Rökaeus A, Melander T, Hökfelt T, Lundberg JM, Tatemoto K, Carlquist M, Mutt V. A galanin-like peptide in the central nervous system and intestine of the rat. Neurosci Lett. 1984 Jun 15;47(2):161–166. [PubMed]
  • Bauer FE, Adrian TE, Christofides ND, Ferri GL, Yanaihara N, Polak JM, Bloom SR. Distribution and molecular heterogeneity of galanin in human, pig, guinea pig, and rat gastrointestinal tracts. Gastroenterology. 1986 Oct;91(4):877–883. [PubMed]
  • Bishop AE, Polak JM, Bauer FE, Christofides ND, Carlei F, Bloom SR. Occurrence and distribution of a newly discovered peptide, galanin, in the mammalian enteric nervous system. Gut. 1986 Jul;27(7):849–857. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Melander T, Hökfelt T, Rökaeus A, Fahrenkrug J, Tatemoto K, Mutt V. Distribution of galanin-like immunoreactivity in the gastro-intestinal tract of several mammalian species. Cell Tissue Res. 1985;239(2):253–270. [PubMed]
  • Rökaeus A, Carlquist M. Nucleotide sequence analysis of cDNAs encoding a bovine galanin precursor protein in the adrenal medulla and chemical isolation of bovine gut galanin. FEBS Lett. 1988 Jul 18;234(2):400–406. [PubMed]
  • Rökaeus A, Brownstein MJ. Construction of a porcine adrenal medullary cDNA library and nucleotide sequence analysis of two clones encoding a galanin precursor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Sep;83(17):6287–6291. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dunning BE, Ahren B, Veith RC, Böttcher G, Sundler F, Taborsky GJ., Jr Galanin: a novel pancreatic neuropeptide. Am J Physiol. 1986 Jul;251(1 Pt 1):E127–E133. [PubMed]
  • Rattan S. Role of galanin in the gut. Gastroenterology. 1991 Jun;100(6):1762–1768. [PubMed]
  • Dunning BE, Taborsky GJ., Jr Galanin--sympathetic neurotransmitter in endocrine pancreas? Diabetes. 1988 Sep;37(9):1157–1162. [PubMed]
  • Ekblad E, Håkanson R, Sundler F, Wahlestedt C. Galanin: neuromodulatory and direct contractile effects on smooth muscle preparations. Br J Pharmacol. 1985 Sep;86(1):241–246. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Vrontakis ME, Peden LM, Duckworth ML, Friesen HG. Isolation and characterization of a complementary DNA (galanin) clone from estrogen-induced pituitary tumor messenger RNA. J Biol Chem. 1987 Dec 15;262(35):16755–16758. [PubMed]
  • Kaplan LM, Spindel ER, Isselbacher KJ, Chin WW. Tissue-specific expression of the rat galanin gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Feb;85(4):1065–1069. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McDonald TJ, Dupre J, Tatemoto K, Greenberg GR, Radziuk J, Mutt V. Galanin inhibits insulin secretion and induces hyperglycemia in dogs. Diabetes. 1985 Feb;34(2):192–196. [PubMed]
  • Leonhardt U, Siegel EG, Köhler H, Barthel M, Tytko A, Nebendahl K, Creutzfeldt W. Galanin inhibits glucose-induced insulin release in vitro. Horm Metab Res. 1989 Feb;21(2):100–101. [PubMed]
  • de Weille J, Schmid-Antomarchi H, Fosset M, Lazdunski M. ATP-sensitive K+ channels that are blocked by hypoglycemia-inducing sulfonylureas in insulin-secreting cells are activated by galanin, a hyperglycemia-inducing hormone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Feb;85(4):1312–1316. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Messell T, Harling H, Böttcher G, Johnsen AH, Holst JJ. Galanin in the porcine pancreas. Regul Pept. 1990 Apr 24;28(2):161–176. [PubMed]
  • Gallwitz B, Schmidt WE, Schwarzhoff R, Creutzfeldt W. Galanin: structural requirements for binding and signal transduction in RINm5F insulinoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1990 Oct 15;172(1):268–275. [PubMed]
  • Amiranoff B, Lorinet AM, Laburthe M. Galanin receptor in the rat pancreatic beta cell line Rin m 5F. Molecular characterization by chemical cross-linking. J Biol Chem. 1989 Dec 5;264(34):20714–20717. [PubMed]
  • Schmidt WE, Siegel EG, Kratzin H, Creutzfeldt W. Isolation and primary structure of tumor-derived peptides related to human pancreastatin and chromogranin A. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Nov;85(21):8231–8235. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schmidt WE, Conlon JM, Mutt V, Carlquist M, Gallwitz B, Creutzfeldt W. Identification of the C-terminally alpha-amidated amino acid in peptides by high-performance liquid chromatography. Eur J Biochem. 1987 Feb 2;162(3):467–472. [PubMed]
  • Tatemoto K, Mutt V. Chemical determination of polypeptide hormones. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978 Sep;75(9):4115–4119. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Unterberg C, Börchers T, Højrup P, Roepstorff P, Knudsen J, Spener F. Cardiac fatty acid-binding proteins. Isolation and characterization of the mitochondrial fatty acid-binding protein and its structural relationship with the cytosolic isoforms. J Biol Chem. 1990 Sep 25;265(27):16255–16261. [PubMed]
  • Katsoulis S, Schmidt WE, Schwörer H, Creutzfeldt W. Effects of galanin, its analogues and fragments on rat isolated fundus strips. Br J Pharmacol. 1990 Oct;101(2):297–300. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Weir GC, Mojsov S, Hendrick GK, Habener JF. Glucagonlike peptide I (7-37) actions on endocrine pancreas. Diabetes. 1989 Mar;38(3):338–342. [PubMed]
  • Suzuki S, Kawai K, Ohashi S, Mukai H, Yamashita K. Comparison of the effects of various C-terminal and N-terminal fragment peptides of glucagon-like peptide-1 on insulin and glucagon release from the isolated perfused rat pancreas. Endocrinology. 1989 Dec;125(6):3109–3114. [PubMed]
  • Spiess J, Rivier J, Vale W. Characterization of rat hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor. Nature. 1983 Jun 9;303(5917):532–535. [PubMed]
  • Ling N, Zeytin F, Böhlen P, Esch F, Brazeau P, Wehrenberg WB, Baird A, Guillemin R. Growth hormone releasing factors. Annu Rev Biochem. 1985;54:403–423. [PubMed]
  • Amiranoff B, Lorinet AM, Yanaihara N, Laburthe M. Structural requirement for galanin action in the pancreatic beta cell line Rin m 5F. Eur J Pharmacol. 1989 Apr 12;163(1):205–207. [PubMed]
  • Fisone G, Berthold M, Bedecs K, Undén A, Bartfai T, Bertorelli R, Consolo S, Crawley J, Martin B, Nilsson S, et al. N-terminal galanin-(1-16) fragment is an agonist at the hippocampal galanin receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Dec;86(23):9588–9591. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Xu XJ, Wiesenfeld-Hallin Z, Fisone G, Bartfai T, Hökfelt T. The N-terminal 1-16, but not C-terminal 17-29, galanin fragment affects the flexor reflex in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 1990 Jun 21;182(1):137–141. [PubMed]
  • Nordström O, Melander T, Hökfelt T, Bartfai T, Goldstein M. Evidence for an inhibitory effect of the peptide galanin on dopamine release from the rat median eminence. Neurosci Lett. 1987 Jan 2;73(1):21–26. [PubMed]
  • Ottlecz A, Snyder GD, McCann SM. Regulatory role of galanin in control of hypothalamic-anterior pituitary function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Dec;85(24):9861–9865. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • López FJ, Meade EH, Jr, Negro-Vilar A. Development and characterization of a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay for rat galanin: measurement in brain tissue, hypophyseal portal and peripheral serum. Brain Res Bull. 1990 Mar;24(3):395–399. [PubMed]
  • Bauer FE, Ginsberg L, Venetikou M, MacKay DJ, Burrin JM, Bloom SR. Growth hormone release in man induced by galanin, a new hypothalamic peptide. Lancet. 1986 Jul 26;2(8500):192–195. [PubMed]
  • Bersani M, Johnsen AH, Højrup P, Dunning BE, Andreasen JJ, Holst JJ. Human galanin: primary structure and identification of two molecular forms. FEBS Lett. 1991 Jun 3;283(2):189–194. [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences


Save items

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • Gene
    Gene links
  • GEO Profiles
    GEO Profiles
    Related GEO records
  • HomoloGene
    HomoloGene links
  • OMIM
    OMIM record citing PubMed
  • Pathways + GO
    Pathways + GO
    Pathways, annotations and biological systems (BioSystems) that cite the current article.
  • Protein
    Published protein sequences
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...