Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Nov 1, 1991; 88(21): 9828–9832.

Identification of markers linked to disease-resistance genes by bulked segregant analysis: a rapid method to detect markers in specific genomic regions by using segregating populations.


We developed bulked segregant analysis as a method for rapidly identifying markers linked to any specific gene or genomic region. Two bulked DNA samples are generated from a segregating population from a single cross. Each pool, or bulk, contains individuals that are identical for a particular trait or genomic region but arbitrary at all unlinked regions. The two bulks are therefore genetically dissimilar in the selected region but seemingly heterozygous at all other regions. The two bulks can be made for any genomic region and from any segregating population. The bulks are screened for differences using restriction fragment length polymorphism probes or random amplified polymorphic DNA primers. We have used bulked segregant analysis to identify three random amplified polymorphic DNA markers in lettuce linked to a gene for resistance to downy mildew. We showed that markers can be reliably identified in a 25-centimorgan window on either side of the targeted locus. Bulked segregant analysis has several advantages over the use of near-isogenic lines to identify markers in specific regions of the genome. Genetic walking will be possible by multiple rounds of bulked segregation analysis; each new pair of bulks will differ at a locus identified in the previous round of analysis. This approach will have widespread application both in those species where selfing is possible and in those that are obligatorily outbreeding.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.3M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Williams JG, Kubelik AR, Livak KJ, Rafalski JA, Tingey SV. DNA polymorphisms amplified by arbitrary primers are useful as genetic markers. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Nov 25;18(22):6531–6535. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Young ND, Zamir D, Ganal MW, Tanksley SD. Use of isogenic lines and simultaneous probing to identify DNA markers tightly linked to the tm-2a gene in tomato. Genetics. 1988 Oct;120(2):579–585. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Landry BS, Kesseli RV, Farrara B, Michelmore RW. A Genetic Map of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) with Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, Isozyme, Disease Resistance and Morphological Markers. Genetics. 1987 Jun;116(2):331–337. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lander ES, Green P, Abrahamson J, Barlow A, Daly MJ, Lincoln SE, Newberg LA, Newburg L. MAPMAKER: an interactive computer package for constructing primary genetic linkage maps of experimental and natural populations. Genomics. 1987 Oct;1(2):174–181. [PubMed]
  • Michiels F, Burmeister M, Lehrach H. Derivation of clones close to met by preparative field inversion gel electrophoresis. Science. 1987 Jun 5;236(4806):1305–1308. [PubMed]
  • Rommens JM, Iannuzzi MC, Kerem B, Drumm ML, Melmer G, Dean M, Rozmahel R, Cole JL, Kennedy D, Hidaka N, et al. Identification of the cystic fibrosis gene: chromosome walking and jumping. Science. 1989 Sep 8;245(4922):1059–1065. [PubMed]
  • Helentjaris T, Weber DF, Wright S. Use of monosomics to map cloned DNA fragments in maize. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Aug;83(16):6035–6039. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Weber D, Helentjaris T. Mapping RFLP loci in maize using B-A translocations. Genetics. 1989 Mar;121(3):583–590. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


  • MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...