• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Sep 1, 1991; 88(17): 7699–7703.
PMCID: PMC52369

Chicken T-cell receptor beta-chain diversity: an evolutionarily conserved D beta-encoded glycine turn within the hypervariable CDR3 domain.

Abstract

Unlike mammals, chickens generate an immunoglobulin (Ig) repertoire by a developmentally regulated process of intrachromosomal gene conversion, which results in nucleotide substitutions throughout the variable regions of the Ig heavy- and light-chain genes. In contrast to chicken Ig genes, we show in this report that diversity of the rearranged chicken T-cell receptor (TCR) beta-chain gene is generated by junctional heterogeneity, as observed in rearranged mammalian TCR genes. This junctional diversity increases during chicken development as a result of an increasing base-pair addition at the V beta-D beta and D beta-J beta joints (where V, D, and J are the variable, diversity, and joining gene segments). Despite the junctional hypervariability, however, almost all functional V beta-D beta-J beta junctions appear to encode a glycine-containing beta-turn. Such a turn may serve to position the amino acid side chains of a hypervariable TCR beta-chain loop with respect to the antigen-binding groove of the major histocompatibility complex molecule. Consistent with this hypothesis, the germ-line D beta nucleotide sequences of chickens, mice, rabbits, and humans have been highly conserved and encode a glycine in all three reading frames.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.1M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Alt FW, Blackwell TK, DePinho RA, Reth MG, Yancopoulos GD. Regulation of genome rearrangement events during lymphocyte differentiation. Immunol Rev. 1986 Feb;89:5–30. [PubMed]
  • Davis MM, Bjorkman PJ. T-cell antigen receptor genes and T-cell recognition. Nature. 1988 Aug 4;334(6181):395–402. [PubMed]
  • Hunkapiller T, Hood L. Diversity of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily. Adv Immunol. 1989;44:1–63. [PubMed]
  • Blackman MA, Kappler JW, Marrack P. T-cell specificity and repertoire. Immunol Rev. 1988 Jan;101:5–19. [PubMed]
  • von Boehmer H, Karjalainen K, Pelkonen J, Borgulya P, Rammensee HG. The T-cell receptor for antigen in T-cell development and repertoire selection. Immunol Rev. 1988 Jan;101:21–37. [PubMed]
  • Reynaud CA, Anquez V, Dahan A, Weill JC. A single rearrangement event generates most of the chicken immunoglobulin light chain diversity. Cell. 1985 Feb;40(2):283–291. [PubMed]
  • Reynaud CA, Dahan A, Anquez V, Weill JC. Somatic hyperconversion diversifies the single Vh gene of the chicken with a high incidence in the D region. Cell. 1989 Oct 6;59(1):171–183. [PubMed]
  • Reynaud CA, Anquez V, Grimal H, Weill JC. A hyperconversion mechanism generates the chicken light chain preimmune repertoire. Cell. 1987 Feb 13;48(3):379–388. [PubMed]
  • Carlson LM, McCormack WT, Postema CE, Humphries EH, Thompson CB. Templated insertions in the rearranged chicken IgL V gene segment arise by intrachromosomal gene conversion. Genes Dev. 1990 Apr;4(4):536–547. [PubMed]
  • McCormack WT, Thompson CB. Chicken IgL variable region gene conversions display pseudogene donor preference and 5' to 3' polarity. Genes Dev. 1990 Apr;4(4):548–558. [PubMed]
  • Tjoelker LW, Carlson LM, Lee K, Lahti J, McCormack WT, Leiden JM, Chen CL, Cooper MD, Thompson CB. Evolutionary conservation of antigen recognition: the chicken T-cell receptor beta chain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Oct;87(20):7856–7860. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Cooper MD, Chen CL, Bucy RP, Thompson CB. Avian T cell ontogeny. Adv Immunol. 1991;50:87–117. [PubMed]
  • Schiffer M, Wu TT, Kabat EA. Subgroups of variable region genes of beta chains of T-cell receptors for antigen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Jun;83(12):4461–4463. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Saiki RK, Gelfand DH, Stoffel S, Scharf SJ, Higuchi R, Horn GT, Mullis KB, Erlich HA. Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase. Science. 1988 Jan 29;239(4839):487–491. [PubMed]
  • McCormack WT, Tjoelker LW, Carlson LM, Petryniak B, Barth CF, Humphries EH, Thompson CB. Chicken IgL gene rearrangement involves deletion of a circular episome and addition of single nonrandom nucleotides to both coding segments. Cell. 1989 Mar 10;56(5):785–791. [PubMed]
  • Clark SP, Yoshikai Y, Taylor S, Siu G, Hood L, Mak TW. Identification of a diversity segment of human T-cell receptor beta-chain, and comparison with the analogous murine element. Nature. 311(5984):387–389. [PubMed]
  • Tunnacliffe A, Rabbitts TH. Sequence of the D beta 2-J beta 2 region of the human T-cell receptor beta-chain locus. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985 Sep 25;13(18):6651–6661. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Siu G, Kronenberg M, Strauss E, Haars R, Mak TW, Hood L. The structure, rearrangement and expression of D beta gene segments of the murine T-cell antigen receptor. Nature. 311(5984):344–350. [PubMed]
  • Kavaler J, Davis MM, Chien Y. Localization of a T-cell receptor diversity-region element. Nature. 1984 Aug 2;310(5976):421–423. [PubMed]
  • Sakano H, Kurosawa Y, Weigert M, Tonegawa S. Identification and nucleotide sequence of a diversity DNA segment (D) of immunoglobulin heavy-chain genes. Nature. 1981 Apr 16;290(5807):562–565. [PubMed]
  • Alt FW, Baltimore D. Joining of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene segments: implications from a chromosome with evidence of three D-JH fusions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Jul;79(13):4118–4122. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Desiderio SV, Yancopoulos GD, Paskind M, Thomas E, Boss MA, Landau N, Alt FW, Baltimore D. Insertion of N regions into heavy-chain genes is correlated with expression of terminal deoxytransferase in B cells. Nature. 1984 Oct 25;311(5988):752–755. [PubMed]
  • Lafaille JJ, DeCloux A, Bonneville M, Takagaki Y, Tonegawa S. Junctional sequences of T cell receptor gamma delta genes: implications for gamma delta T cell lineages and for a novel intermediate of V-(D)-J joining. Cell. 1989 Dec 1;59(5):859–870. [PubMed]
  • Gu H, Förster I, Rajewsky K. Sequence homologies, N sequence insertion and JH gene utilization in VHDJH joining: implications for the joining mechanism and the ontogenetic timing of Ly1 B cell and B-CLL progenitor generation. EMBO J. 1990 Jul;9(7):2133–2140. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Feeney AJ. Lack of N regions in fetal and neonatal mouse immunoglobulin V-D-J junctional sequences. J Exp Med. 1990 Nov 1;172(5):1377–1390. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Meek K. Analysis of junctional diversity during B lymphocyte development. Science. 1990 Nov 9;250(4982):820–823. [PubMed]
  • Concannon P, Pickering LA, Kung P, Hood L. Diversity and structure of human T-cell receptor beta-chain variable region genes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Sep;83(17):6598–6602. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Barth RK, Kim BS, Lan NC, Hunkapiller T, Sobieck N, Winoto A, Gershenfeld H, Okada C, Hansburg D, Weissman IL, et al. The murine T-cell receptor uses a limited repertoire of expressed V beta gene segments. Nature. 1985 Aug 8;316(6028):517–523. [PubMed]
  • Goverman J, Minard K, Shastri N, Hunkapiller T, Hansburg D, Sercarz E, Hood L. Rearranged beta T cell receptor genes in a helper T cell clone specific for lysozyme: no correlation between V beta and MHC restriction. Cell. 1985 Apr;40(4):859–867. [PubMed]
  • Gregoire KE, Goldschneider I, Barton RW, Bollum FJ. Ontogeny of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-positive cells in lymphohemopoietic tissues of rat and mouse. J Immunol. 1979 Sep;123(3):1347–1352. [PubMed]
  • Rothenberg E, Triglia D. Clonal proliferation unlinked to terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase synthesis in thymocytes of young mice. J Immunol. 1983 Apr;130(4):1627–1633. [PubMed]
  • Krangel MS, Yssel H, Brocklehurst C, Spits H. A distinct wave of human T cell receptor gamma/delta lymphocytes in the early fetal thymus: evidence for controlled gene rearrangement and cytokine production. J Exp Med. 1990 Sep 1;172(3):847–859. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • McCormack WT, Tjoelker LW, Barth CF, Carlson LM, Petryniak B, Humphries EH, Thompson CB. Selection for B cells with productive IgL gene rearrangements occurs in the bursa of Fabricius during chicken embryonic development. Genes Dev. 1989 Jun;3(6):838–847. [PubMed]
  • Claverie JM, Prochnicka-Chalufour A, Bougueleret L. Implications of a Fab-like structure for the T-cell receptor. Immunol Today. 1989 Jan;10(1):10–14. [PubMed]
  • Chou PY, Fasman GD. Beta-turns in proteins. J Mol Biol. 1977 Sep 15;115(2):135–175. [PubMed]
  • Sibanda BL, Thornton JM. Beta-hairpin families in globular proteins. Nature. 1985 Jul 11;316(6024):170–174. [PubMed]
  • Leszczynski JF, Rose GD. Loops in globular proteins: a novel category of secondary structure. Science. 1986 Nov 14;234(4778):849–855. [PubMed]
  • Elliott JF, Rock EP, Patten PA, Davis MM, Chien YH. The adult T-cell receptor delta-chain is diverse and distinct from that of fetal thymocytes. Nature. 1988 Feb 18;331(6157):627–631. [PubMed]
  • Loh EY, Cwirla S, Serafini AT, Phillips JH, Lanier LL. Human T-cell-receptor delta chain: genomic organization, diversity, and expression in populations of cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Dec;85(24):9714–9718. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Asarnow DM, Kuziel WA, Bonyhadi M, Tigelaar RE, Tucker PW, Allison JP. Limited diversity of gamma delta antigen receptor genes of Thy-1+ dendritic epidermal cells. Cell. 1988 Dec 2;55(5):837–847. [PubMed]
  • Ichihara Y, Hayashida H, Miyazawa S, Kurosawa Y. Only DFL16, DSP2, and DQ52 gene families exist in mouse immunoglobulin heavy chain diversity gene loci, of which DFL16 and DSP2 originate from the same primordial DH gene. Eur J Immunol. 1989 Oct;19(10):1849–1854. [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Compound
    Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • Nucleotide
    Nucleotide
    Published Nucleotide sequences
  • Protein
    Protein
    Published protein sequences
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...