• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Oct 1, 1992; 89(19): 9097–9101.

Molecular cloning of a candidate chicken prion protein.


Fractions enriched for acetylcholine receptor-inducing activity from chicken brain were found to contain a protein that was approximately 30% homologous with mammalian prion proteins [Harris, D. A., Falls, D. L., Johnson, F. A. & Fischbach, G. D. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 7664-7668]. To extend these observations, we recovered genomic clones encoding a putative chicken prion protein (PrP). Like mammalian PrP molecules, the candidate chicken PrP is encoded by a single-copy gene and the entire open reading frame is found within a single exon. All of the structural features of mammalian PrP were found in the chicken protein. When the N-terminal repeats of PrP were not considered, the chicken and mammalian proteins were approximately 55% homologous, allowing for conservative substitutions. Screening of a chicken genomic DNA library failed to identify a more closely related chicken PrP homologue. These findings argue that the protein which purifies with acetylcholine receptor-inducing activity is chicken PrP.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.2M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Prusiner SB. Molecular biology of prion diseases. Science. 1991 Jun 14;252(5012):1515–1522. [PubMed]
  • Chesebro B, Race R, Wehrly K, Nishio J, Bloom M, Lechner D, Bergstrom S, Robbins K, Mayer L, Keith JM, et al. Identification of scrapie prion protein-specific mRNA in scrapie-infected and uninfected brain. Nature. 1985 May 23;315(6017):331–333. [PubMed]
  • Oesch B, Westaway D, Wälchli M, McKinley MP, Kent SB, Aebersold R, Barry RA, Tempst P, Teplow DB, Hood LE, et al. A cellular gene encodes scrapie PrP 27-30 protein. Cell. 1985 Apr;40(4):735–746. [PubMed]
  • Kretzschmar HA, Prusiner SB, Stowring LE, DeArmond SJ. Scrapie prion proteins are synthesized in neurons. Am J Pathol. 1986 Jan;122(1):1–5. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Stahl N, Borchelt DR, Hsiao K, Prusiner SB. Scrapie prion protein contains a phosphatidylinositol glycolipid. Cell. 1987 Oct 23;51(2):229–240. [PubMed]
  • Mobley WC, Neve RL, Prusiner SB, McKinley MP. Nerve growth factor increases mRNA levels for the prion protein and the beta-amyloid protein precursor in developing hamster brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Dec;85(24):9811–9815. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Usdin TB, Fischbach GD. Purification and characterization of a polypeptide from chick brain that promotes the accumulation of acetylcholine receptors in chick myotubes. J Cell Biol. 1986 Aug;103(2):493–507. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Falls DL, Harris DA, Johnson FA, Morgan MM, Corfas G, Fischbach GD. Mr 42,000 ARIA: a protein that may regulate the accumulation of acetylcholine receptors at developing chick neuromuscular junctions. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1990;55:397–406. [PubMed]
  • Harris DA, Falls DL, Johnson FA, Fischbach GD. A prion-like protein from chicken brain copurifies with an acetylcholine receptor-inducing activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Sep 1;88(17):7664–7668. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Westaway D, Goodman PA, Mirenda CA, McKinley MP, Carlson GA, Prusiner SB. Distinct prion proteins in short and long scrapie incubation period mice. Cell. 1987 Nov 20;51(4):651–662. [PubMed]
  • Goldmann W, Hunter N, Martin T, Dawson M, Hope J. Different forms of the bovine PrP gene have five or six copies of a short, G-C-rich element within the protein-coding exon. J Gen Virol. 1991 Jan;72(Pt 1):201–204. [PubMed]
  • Goldmann W, Hunter N, Foster JD, Salbaum JM, Beyreuther K, Hope J. Two alleles of a neural protein gene linked to scrapie in sheep. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Apr;87(7):2476–2480. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Liao YC, Tokes Z, Lim E, Lackey A, Woo CH, Button JD, Clawson GA. Cloning of rat "prion-related protein" cDNA. Lab Invest. 1987 Oct;57(4):370–374. [PubMed]
  • Lowenstein DH, Butler DA, Westaway D, McKinley MP, DeArmond SJ, Prusiner SB. Three hamster species with different scrapie incubation times and neuropathological features encode distinct prion proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Mar;10(3):1153–1163. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Liao YC, Lebo RV, Clawson GA, Smuckler EA. Human prion protein cDNA: molecular cloning, chromosomal mapping, and biological implications. Science. 1986 Jul 18;233(4761):364–367. [PubMed]
  • Feng DF, Doolittle RF. Progressive sequence alignment as a prerequisite to correct phylogenetic trees. J Mol Evol. 1987;25(4):351–360. [PubMed]
  • Feng DF, Doolittle RF. Progressive alignment and phylogenetic tree construction of protein sequences. Methods Enzymol. 1990;183:375–387. [PubMed]
  • Wood WI, Gitschier J, Lasky LA, Lawn RM. Base composition-independent hybridization in tetramethylammonium chloride: a method for oligonucleotide screening of highly complex gene libraries. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Mar;82(6):1585–1588. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jacobs KA, Rudersdorf R, Neill SD, Dougherty JP, Brown EL, Fritsch EF. The thermal stability of oligonucleotide duplexes is sequence independent in tetraalkylammonium salt solutions: application to identifying recombinant DNA clones. Nucleic Acids Res. 1988 May 25;16(10):4637–4650. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kozak M. Compilation and analysis of sequences upstream from the translational start site in eukaryotic mRNAs. Nucleic Acids Res. 1984 Jan 25;12(2):857–872. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Basler K, Oesch B, Scott M, Westaway D, Wälchli M, Groth DF, McKinley MP, Prusiner SB, Weissmann C. Scrapie and cellular PrP isoforms are encoded by the same chromosomal gene. Cell. 1986 Aug 1;46(3):417–428. [PubMed]
  • Pearson WR, Lipman DJ. Improved tools for biological sequence comparison. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Apr;85(8):2444–2448. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ. Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol. 1990 Oct 5;215(3):403–410. [PubMed]
  • Altschul SF, Erickson BW. Optimal sequence alignment using affine gap costs. Bull Math Biol. 1986;48(5-6):603–616. [PubMed]
  • Stahl N, Borchelt DR, Prusiner SB. Differential release of cellular and scrapie prion proteins from cellular membranes by phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C. Biochemistry. 1990 Jun 5;29(22):5405–5412. [PubMed]
  • Ferguson MA, Williams AF. Cell-surface anchoring of proteins via glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol structures. Annu Rev Biochem. 1988;57:285–320. [PubMed]
  • Moran P, Raab H, Kohr WJ, Caras IW. Glycophospholipid membrane anchor attachment. Molecular analysis of the cleavage/attachment site. J Biol Chem. 1991 Jan 15;266(2):1250–1257. [PubMed]
  • Westaway D, Mirenda CA, Foster D, Zebarjadian Y, Scott M, Torchia M, Yang SL, Serban H, DeArmond SJ, Ebeling C, et al. Paradoxical shortening of scrapie incubation times by expression of prion protein transgenes derived from long incubation period mice. Neuron. 1991 Jul;7(1):59–68. [PubMed]
  • Puckett C, Concannon P, Casey C, Hood L. Genomic structure of the human prion protein gene. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Aug;49(2):320–329. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Doolittle RF, Feng DF. Nearest neighbor procedure for relating progressively aligned amino acid sequences. Methods Enzymol. 1990;183:659–669. [PubMed]
  • Hay B, Barry RA, Lieberburg I, Prusiner SB, Lingappa VR. Biogenesis and transmembrane orientation of the cellular isoform of the scrapie prion protein [published errratum appears in Mol Cell Biol 1987 May;7(5):2035]. Mol Cell Biol. 1987 Feb;7(2):914–920. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hay B, Prusiner SB, Lingappa VR. Evidence for a secretory form of the cellular prion protein. Biochemistry. 1987 Dec 15;26(25):8110–8115. [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...