• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of jclinpathJournal of Clinical PathologyCurrent TOCInstructions for authors
J Clin Pathol. Aug 1997; 50(8): 669–673.
PMCID: PMC500114

Angiogenesis and inflammation in invasive carcinoma of the breast.

Abstract

AIM: To investigate the relation between angiogenesis and inflammation in invasive carcinoma of the breast. METHODS: Sections from 75 invasive carcinomas of the breast were stained using immunohistochemistry for von Willebrand factor, CD3, CD8, CD45RO, CD45RA, CD20, CD68, and c-erbB-2. Tumour vascularity was assessed by counting vessels in the three most vascular areas, and calculating the average (x 400 magnification, field 0.168 mm2). Each pattern of inflammation was scored semiquantitatively. RESULTS: The main pattern of inflammation was a diffuse infiltrate of macrophages, and to a lesser extent T cells. Perivascular and perilobular clusters of B and T cells were noted at the edge of the carcinomas, but were less prominent than the diffuse inflammation. Diffuse inflammation, particularly macrophages, was associated with high tumour grade, tumour necrosis, large tumour size, and c-erbB-2 expression. Perivascular and perilobular inflammation also increased with tumour grade. Tumour vascularity increased slightly with intensity of diffuse inflammation (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient rs = 0.17, p = 0.08), and was inversely related to perilobular inflammation (rs = -0.23, p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: The correlations between inflammation and vascularity were weak in this study (r2 about 0.04) and thus there was no evidence of an important relation. Discrepancies between this and other studies may be resolved by studying expression of angiogenic cytokines and proteolytic enzymes by tumour infiltrating inflammatory cells, and their relation to tumour vascularity.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (926K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Weidner N, Folkman J, Pozza F, Bevilacqua P, Allred EN, Moore DH, Meli S, Gasparini G. Tumor angiogenesis: a new significant and independent prognostic indicator in early-stage breast carcinoma. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1992 Dec 16;84(24):1875–1887. [PubMed]
  • Horak ER, Leek R, Klenk N, LeJeune S, Smith K, Stuart N, Greenall M, Stepniewska K, Harris AL. Angiogenesis, assessed by platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule antibodies, as indicator of node metastases and survival in breast cancer. Lancet. 1992 Nov 7;340(8828):1120–1124. [PubMed]
  • Bhan AK, DesMarais CL. Immunohistologic characterization of major histocompatibility antigens and inflammatory cellular infiltrate in human breast cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1983 Sep;71(3):507–516. [PubMed]
  • Göttlinger HG, Rieber P, Gokel JM, Lohe KJ, Riethmüller G. Infiltrating mononuclear cells in human breast carcinoma: predominance of T4+ monocytic cells in the tumor stroma. Int J Cancer. 1985 Feb 15;35(2):199–205. [PubMed]
  • Zuk JA, Walker RA. Immunohistochemical analysis of HLA antigens and mononuclear infiltrates of benign and malignant breast. J Pathol. 1987 Aug;152(4):275–285. [PubMed]
  • Lee AH, Happerfield LC, Millis RR, Bobrow LG. Inflammatory infiltrate in invasive lobular and ductal carcinoma of the breast. Br J Cancer. 1996 Sep;74(5):796–801. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Rilke F, Colnaghi MI, Cascinelli N, Andreola S, Baldini MT, Bufalino R, Della Porta G, Ménard S, Pierotti MA, Testori A. Prognostic significance of HER-2/neu expression in breast cancer and its relationship to other prognostic factors. Int J Cancer. 1991 Aug 19;49(1):44–49. [PubMed]
  • Parl FF, Dupont WD. A retrospective cohort study of Histologic risk factors in breast cancer patients. Cancer. 1982 Dec 1;50(11):2410–2416. [PubMed]
  • Alderson MR, Hamlin I, Staunton MD. The relative significance of prognostic factors in breast carcinoma. Br J Cancer. 1971 Dec;25(4):646–656. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Roses DF, Bell DA, Flotte TJ, Taylor R, Ratech H, Dubin N. Pathologic predictors of recurrence in stage 1 (TINOMO) breast cancer. Am J Clin Pathol. 1982 Dec;78(6):817–820. [PubMed]
  • Balch CM, Riley LB, Bae YJ, Salmeron MA, Platsoucas CD, von Eschenbach A, Itoh K. Patterns of human tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in 120 human cancers. Arch Surg. 1990 Feb;125(2):200–205. [PubMed]
  • Miescher S, Whiteside TL, Carrel S, von Fliedner V. Functional properties of tumor-infiltrating and blood lymphocytes in patients with solid tumors: effects of tumor cells and their supernatants on proliferative responses of lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1986 Mar 1;136(5):1899–1907. [PubMed]
  • Sunderkötter C, Steinbrink K, Goebeler M, Bhardwaj R, Sorg C. Macrophages and angiogenesis. J Leukoc Biol. 1994 Mar;55(3):410–422. [PubMed]
  • Koch AE, Polverini PJ, Leibovich SJ. Induction of neovascularization by activated human monocytes. J Leukoc Biol. 1986 Feb;39(2):233–238. [PubMed]
  • Leek RD, Lewis CE, Whitehouse R, Greenall M, Clarke J, Harris AL. Association of macrophage infiltration with angiogenesis and prognosis in invasive breast carcinoma. Cancer Res. 1996 Oct 15;56(20):4625–4629. [PubMed]
  • Elston CW, Ellis IO. Pathological prognostic factors in breast cancer. I. The value of histological grade in breast cancer: experience from a large study with long-term follow-up. Histopathology. 1991 Nov;19(5):403–410. [PubMed]
  • Cordell JL, Falini B, Erber WN, Ghosh AK, Abdulaziz Z, MacDonald S, Pulford KA, Stein H, Mason DY. Immunoenzymatic labeling of monoclonal antibodies using immune complexes of alkaline phosphatase and monoclonal anti-alkaline phosphatase (APAAP complexes). J Histochem Cytochem. 1984 Feb;32(2):219–229. [PubMed]
  • Aaltomaa S, Lipponen P, Eskelinen M, Kosma VM, Marin S, Alhava E, Syrjänen K. Lymphocyte infiltrates as a prognostic variable in female breast cancer. Eur J Cancer. 1992;28A(4-5):859–864. [PubMed]
  • Elston CW, Gresham GA, Rao GS, Zebro T, Haybittle JL, Houghton J, Kearney G. The cancer research campaign (King's/Cambridge trial for early breast cancer: clinico-pathological aspects. Br J Cancer. 1982 May;45(5):655–669. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kelly PM, Davison RS, Bliss E, McGee JO. Macrophages in human breast disease: a quantitative immunohistochemical study. Br J Cancer. 1988 Feb;57(2):174–177. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Lee AH, Happerfield LC, Bobrow LG, Millis RR. Angiogenesis and inflammation in ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast. J Pathol. 1997 Feb;181(2):200–206. [PubMed]
  • O'Laughlin S, Braverman M, Smith-Jefferies M, Buckley P. Macrophages (histiocytes) in various reactive and inflammatory conditions express different antigenic phenotypes. Hum Pathol. 1992 Dec;23(12):1410–1418. [PubMed]
  • Hildenbrand R, Dilger I, Hörlin A, Stutte HJ. Urokinase and macrophages in tumour angiogenesis. Br J Cancer. 1995 Oct;72(4):818–823. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Visscher DW, Tabaczka P, Long D, Crissman JD. Clinicopathologic analysis of macrophage infiltrates in breast carcinoma. Pathol Res Pract. 1995 Nov;191(11):1133–1139. [PubMed]
  • Toi M, Inada K, Suzuki H, Tominaga T. Tumor angiogenesis in breast cancer: its importance as a prognostic indicator and the association with vascular endothelial growth factor expression. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 1995;36(2):193–204. [PubMed]
  • Toi M, Hoshina S, Taniguchi T, Yamamoto Y, Ishitsuka H, Tominaga T. Expression of platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase in human breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 1995 Apr 21;64(2):79–82. [PubMed]
  • Fox SB, Westwood M, Moghaddam A, Comley M, Turley H, Whitehouse RM, Bicknell R, Gatter KC, Harris AL. The angiogenic factor platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor/thymidine phosphorylase is up-regulated in breast cancer epithelium and endothelium. Br J Cancer. 1996 Feb;73(3):275–280. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Visscher DW, DeMattia F, Ottosen S, Sarkar FH, Crissman JD. Biologic and clinical significance of basic fibroblast growth factor immunostaining in breast carcinoma. Mod Pathol. 1995 Aug;8(6):665–670. [PubMed]

Articles from Journal of Clinical Pathology are provided here courtesy of BMJ Group

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles