Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Aug 15, 1992; 89(16): 7360–7364.

Spatial pattern of cdc2 expression in relation to meristem activity and cell proliferation during plant development.


The p34 protein kinase encoded by the cdc2 gene is a key component of the eukaryotic cell cycle required for the G1- to S-phase transition and entry into mitosis. To study the regulation of plant meristem activity and cell proliferation, we have examined the tissue-specific accumulation of cdc2 transcripts in Arabidopsis thaliana and the related crucifer radish (Raphanus sativus) by in situ hybridization using A. thaliana cdc2 cDNA sequences as a probe. cdc2 transcripts accumulated in leaf primordia and within the vegetative shoot apical meristem. During flower development, high levels of expression were observed in meristems, in the basal regions of developing organs, in the developing vasculature, and associated with rib meristems elaborated late in the development of some floral organs. In root tips, cdc2 transcripts accumulated in the meristematic region and adjacent daughter cells but were not detected in the quiescent center. There was strong hybridization throughout the pericycle, and a further localized accumulation of cdc2 transcripts was observed in the initial stages of the activation of a new meristem at sites of lateral root development. We conclude that cdc2 expression is a critical factor in the regulation of meristem activity and establishment of proliferative competence.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.2M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Nurse P. Universal control mechanism regulating onset of M-phase. Nature. 1990 Apr 5;344(6266):503–508. [PubMed]
  • Forsburg SL, Nurse P. Cell cycle regulation in the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Annu Rev Cell Biol. 1991;7:227–256. [PubMed]
  • Pines J, Hunter T. p34cdc2: the S and M kinase? New Biol. 1990 May;2(5):389–401. [PubMed]
  • Ferreira PC, Hemerly AS, Villarroel R, Van Montagu M, Inzé D. The Arabidopsis functional homolog of the p34cdc2 protein kinase. Plant Cell. 1991 May;3(5):531–540. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Hirayama T, Imajuku Y, Anai T, Matsui M, Oka A. Identification of two cell-cycle-controlling cdc2 gene homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana. Gene. 1991 Sep 15;105(2):159–165. [PubMed]
  • Hirt H, Páy A, Györgyey J, Bakó L, Németh K, Bögre L, Schweyen RJ, Heberle-Bors E, Dudits D. Complementation of a yeast cell cycle mutant by an alfalfa cDNA encoding a protein kinase homologous to p34cdc2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Mar 1;88(5):1636–1640. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Feiler HS, Jacobs TW. Cell division in higher plants: a cdc2 gene, its 34-kDa product, and histone H1 kinase activity in pea. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Jul;87(14):5397–5401. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Colasanti J, Tyers M, Sundaresan V. Isolation and characterization of cDNA clones encoding a functional p34cdc2 homologue from Zea mays. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Apr 15;88(8):3377–3381. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Chomczynski P, Sacchi N. Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction. Anal Biochem. 1987 Apr;162(1):156–159. [PubMed]
  • Reed SI, Ferguson J, Groppe JC. Preliminary characterization of the transcriptional and translational products of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell division cycle gene CDC28. Mol Cell Biol. 1982 Apr;2(4):412–425. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Yanofsky MF, Ma H, Bowman JL, Drews GN, Feldmann KA, Meyerowitz EM. The protein encoded by the Arabidopsis homeotic gene agamous resembles transcription factors. Nature. 1990 Jul 5;346(6279):35–39. [PubMed]
  • Church GM, Gilbert W. Genomic sequencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1984 Apr;81(7):1991–1995. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Drews GN, Bowman JL, Meyerowitz EM. Negative regulation of the Arabidopsis homeotic gene AGAMOUS by the APETALA2 product. Cell. 1991 Jun 14;65(6):991–1002. [PubMed]
  • Smyth DR, Bowman JL, Meyerowitz EM. Early flower development in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 1990 Aug;2(8):755–767. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Schiefelbein JW, Benfey PN. The development of plant roots: new approaches to underground problems. Plant Cell. 1991 Nov;3(11):1147–1154. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jack T, Brockman LL, Meyerowitz EM. The homeotic gene APETALA3 of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a MADS box and is expressed in petals and stamens. Cell. 1992 Feb 21;68(4):683–697. [PubMed]
  • Barlow PW. Towards an understanding of the behaviour of root meristems. J Theor Biol. 1976 Apr;57(2):433–451. [PubMed]
  • Lee MG, Norbury CJ, Spurr NK, Nurse P. Regulated expression and phosphorylation of a possible mammalian cell-cycle control protein. Nature. 1988 Jun 16;333(6174):676–679. [PubMed]
  • Krek W, Nigg EA. Structure and developmental expression of the chicken CDC2 kinase. EMBO J. 1989 Oct;8(10):3071–3078. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Dalton S. Cell cycle regulation of the human cdc2 gene. EMBO J. 1992 May;11(5):1797–1804. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...