• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Jun 15, 1992; 89(12): 5675–5679.
PMCID: PMC49355

Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of human brain activity during primary sensory stimulation.

Abstract

Neuronal activity causes local changes in cerebral blood flow, blood volume, and blood oxygenation. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques sensitive to changes in cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation were developed by high-speed echo planar imaging. These techniques were used to obtain completely noninvasive tomographic maps of human brain activity, by using visual and motor stimulus paradigms. Changes in blood oxygenation were detected by using a gradient echo (GE) imaging sequence sensitive to the paramagnetic state of deoxygenated hemoglobin. Blood flow changes were evaluated by a spin-echo inversion recovery (IR), tissue relaxation parameter T1-sensitive pulse sequence. A series of images were acquired continuously with the same imaging pulse sequence (either GE or IR) during task activation. Cine display of subtraction images (activated minus baseline) directly demonstrates activity-induced changes in brain MR signal observed at a temporal resolution of seconds. During 8-Hz patterned-flash photic stimulation, a significant increase in signal intensity (paired t test; P less than 0.001) of 1.8% +/- 0.8% (GE) and 1.8% +/- 0.9% (IR) was observed in the primary visual cortex (V1) of seven normal volunteers. The mean rise-time constant of the signal change was 4.4 +/- 2.2 s for the GE images and 8.9 +/- 2.8 s for the IR images. The stimulation frequency dependence of visual activation agrees with previous positron emission tomography observations, with the largest MR signal response occurring at 8 Hz. Similar signal changes were observed within the human primary motor cortex (M1) during a hand squeezing task and in animal models of increased blood flow by hypercapnia. By using intrinsic blood-tissue contrast, functional MRI opens a spatial-temporal window onto individual brain physiology.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (1.1M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Click on the image to see a larger version.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Zeki S, Watson JD, Lueck CJ, Friston KJ, Kennard C, Frackowiak RS. A direct demonstration of functional specialization in human visual cortex. J Neurosci. 1991 Mar;11(3):641–649. [PubMed]
  • Fox PT, Mintun MA, Raichle ME, Miezin FM, Allman JM, Van Essen DC. Mapping human visual cortex with positron emission tomography. Nature. 323(6091):806–809. [PubMed]
  • Fox PT, Raichle ME. Focal physiological uncoupling of cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism during somatosensory stimulation in human subjects. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Feb;83(4):1140–1144. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Belliveau JW, Kennedy DN, Jr, McKinstry RC, Buchbinder BR, Weisskoff RM, Cohen MS, Vevea JM, Brady TJ, Rosen BR. Functional mapping of the human visual cortex by magnetic resonance imaging. Science. 1991 Nov 1;254(5032):716–719. [PubMed]
  • Fox PT, Raichle ME, Mintun MA, Dence C. Nonoxidative glucose consumption during focal physiologic neural activity. Science. 1988 Jul 22;241(4864):462–464. [PubMed]
  • Phelps ME, Kuhl DE, Mazziota JC. Metabolic mapping of the brain's response to visual stimulation: studies in humans. Science. 1981 Mar 27;211(4489):1445–1448. [PubMed]
  • Prichard J, Rothman D, Novotny E, Petroff O, Kuwabara T, Avison M, Howseman A, Hanstock C, Shulman R. Lactate rise detected by 1H NMR in human visual cortex during physiologic stimulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Jul 1;88(13):5829–5831. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Ogawa S, Lee TM, Nayak AS, Glynn P. Oxygenation-sensitive contrast in magnetic resonance image of rodent brain at high magnetic fields. Magn Reson Med. 1990 Apr;14(1):68–78. [PubMed]
  • Ogawa S, Lee TM. Magnetic resonance imaging of blood vessels at high fields: in vivo and in vitro measurements and image simulation. Magn Reson Med. 1990 Oct;16(1):9–18. [PubMed]
  • Turner R, Le Bihan D, Moonen CT, Despres D, Frank J. Echo-planar time course MRI of cat brain oxygenation changes. Magn Reson Med. 1991 Nov;22(1):159–166. [PubMed]
  • Thulborn KR, Waterton JC, Matthews PM, Radda GK. Oxygenation dependence of the transverse relaxation time of water protons in whole blood at high field. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1982 Feb 2;714(2):265–270. [PubMed]
  • Detre JA, Leigh JS, Williams DS, Koretsky AP. Perfusion imaging. Magn Reson Med. 1992 Jan;23(1):37–45. [PubMed]
  • Williams DS, Detre JA, Leigh JS, Koretsky AP. Magnetic resonance imaging of perfusion using spin inversion of arterial water. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Jan 1;89(1):212–216. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Churchland PS, Sejnowski TJ. Perspectives on cognitive neuroscience. Science. 1988 Nov 4;242(4879):741–745. [PubMed]
  • Cohen MS, Weisskoff RM. Ultra-fast imaging. Magn Reson Imaging. 1991;9(1):1–37. [PubMed]
  • Fox PT, Raichle ME. Stimulus rate dependence of regional cerebral blood flow in human striate cortex, demonstrated by positron emission tomography. J Neurophysiol. 1984 May;51(5):1109–1120. [PubMed]
  • Fox PT, Raichle ME. Stimulus rate determines regional brain blood flow in striate cortex. Ann Neurol. 1985 Mar;17(3):303–305. [PubMed]
  • Belliveau JW, Rosen BR, Kantor HL, Rzedzian RR, Kennedy DN, McKinstry RC, Vevea JM, Cohen MS, Pykett IL, Brady TJ. Functional cerebral imaging by susceptibility-contrast NMR. Magn Reson Med. 1990 Jun;14(3):538–546. [PubMed]
  • Deiber MP, Passingham RE, Colebatch JG, Friston KJ, Nixon PD, Frackowiak RS. Cortical areas and the selection of movement: a study with positron emission tomography. Exp Brain Res. 1991;84(2):393–402. [PubMed]
  • Grubb RL, Jr, Raichle ME, Eichling JO, Ter-Pogossian MM. The effects of changes in PaCO2 on cerebral blood volume, blood flow, and vascular mean transit time. Stroke. 1974 Sep-Oct;5(5):630–639. [PubMed]
  • Weisskoff RM, Kiihne S. MRI susceptometry: image-based measurement of absolute susceptibility of MR contrast agents and human blood. Magn Reson Med. 1992 Apr;24(2):375–383. [PubMed]
  • Brooks RA, Di Chiro G. Magnetic resonance imaging of stationary blood: a review. Med Phys. 1987 Nov-Dec;14(6):903–913. [PubMed]
  • Grinvald A, Lieke E, Frostig RD, Gilbert CD, Wiesel TN. Functional architecture of cortex revealed by optical imaging of intrinsic signals. Nature. 324(6095):361–364. [PubMed]
  • Frostig RD, Lieke EE, Ts'o DY, Grinvald A. Cortical functional architecture and local coupling between neuronal activity and the microcirculation revealed by in vivo high-resolution optical imaging of intrinsic signals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Aug;87(16):6082–6086. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Raichle ME, Eichling JO, Straatmann MG, Welch MJ, Larson KB, Ter-Pogossian MM. Blood-brain barrier permeability of 11C-labeled alcohols and 15O-labeled water. Am J Physiol. 1976 Feb;230(2):543–552. [PubMed]
  • Mintun MA, Fox PT, Raichle ME. A highly accurate method of localizing regions of neuronal activation in the human brain with positron emission tomography. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1989 Feb;9(1):96–103. [PubMed]
  • Lueck CJ, Zeki S, Friston KJ, Deiber MP, Cope P, Cunningham VJ, Lammertsma AA, Kennard C, Frackowiak RS. The colour centre in the cerebral cortex of man. Nature. 1989 Aug 3;340(6232):386–389. [PubMed]
  • Fox PT, Miezin FM, Allman JM, Van Essen DC, Raichle ME. Retinotopic organization of human visual cortex mapped with positron-emission tomography. J Neurosci. 1987 Mar;7(3):913–922. [PubMed]
  • Perlmutter JS, Powers WJ, Herscovitch P, Fox PT, Raichle ME. Regional asymmetries of cerebral blood flow, blood volume, and oxygen utilization and extraction in normal subjects. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1987 Feb;7(1):64–67. [PubMed]
  • Belliveau JW, Cohen MS, Weisskoff RM, Buchbinder BR, Rosen BR. Functional studies of the human brain using high-speed magnetic resonance imaging. J Neuroimaging. 1991 Feb;1(1):36–41. [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • Cited in Books
    Cited in Books
    PubMed Central articles cited in books
  • Compound
    Compound
    PubChem Compound links
  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...