• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Apr 1, 1992; 89(7): 2809–2813.

Expression of the mouse tyrosinase gene during embryonic development: recapitulation of the temporal regulation in transgenic mice.


Pigment in mammals is produced in melanocytes of the skin derived from the neural crest and in the pigmented epithelial cells of the retina derived from the optic cup. Tyrosinase (monophenol, L-dopa:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC is regarded as the key enzyme in pigment synthesis in both these cell types. In this study, we have investigated the temporal regulation of expression of the tyrosinase gene during early eye development and in the developing hair follicle of the mouse by in situ hybridization and have asked whether transgenes would precisely mimick this pattern. We show that the mouse tyrosinase gene is expressed in the pigment epithelium of the retina as early as day 10.5 of gestation. In the hair follicle, tyrosinase gene expression in melanocytes is detected from day 16.5 onwards. This cell type-specific and temporal expression is largely reproduced in transgenic mice carrying a tyrosinase minigene. Our results suggest that sequences in the immediate vicinity of the mouse tyrosinase gene are sufficient to provide cell-type specificity and developmental regulation in melanocytes and in the pigment epithelium.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (2.7M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Images in this article

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Beermann F, Ruppert S, Hummler E, Bosch FX, Müller G, Rüther U, Schütz G. Rescue of the albino phenotype by introduction of a functional tyrosinase gene into mice. EMBO J. 1990 Sep;9(9):2819–2826. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Tanaka S, Yamamoto H, Takeuchi S, Takeuchi T. Melanization in albino mice transformed by introducing cloned mouse tyrosinase gene. Development. 1990 Feb;108(2):223–227. [PubMed]
  • Yokoyama T, Silversides DW, Waymire KG, Kwon BS, Takeuchi T, Overbeek PA. Conserved cysteine to serine mutation in tyrosinase is responsible for the classical albino mutation in laboratory mice. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Dec 25;18(24):7293–7298. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kwon BS, Wakulchik M, Haq AK, Halaban R, Kestler D. Sequence analysis of mouse tyrosinase cDNA and the effect of melanotropin on its gene expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1988 Jun 30;153(3):1301–1309. [PubMed]
  • Ruppert S, Müller G, Kwon B, Schütz G. Multiple transcripts of the mouse tyrosinase gene are generated by alternative splicing. EMBO J. 1988 Sep;7(9):2715–2722. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Jackson IJ, Bennett DC. Identification of the albino mutation of mouse tyrosinase by analysis of an in vitro revertant. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Sep;87(18):7010–7014. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Klüppel M, Beermann F, Ruppert S, Schmid E, Hummler E, Schütz G. The mouse tyrosinase promoter is sufficient for expression in melanocytes and in the pigmented epithelium of the retina. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 May 1;88(9):3777–3781. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Bradl M, Klein-Szanto A, Porter S, Mintz B. Malignant melanoma in transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Jan 1;88(1):164–168. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Klein-Szanto A, Bradl M, Porter S, Mintz B. Melanosis and associated tumors in transgenic mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Jan 1;88(1):169–173. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Shibahara S, Okinaga S, Tomita Y, Takeda A, Yamamoto H, Sato M, Takeuchi T. A point mutation in the tyrosinase gene of BALB/c albino mouse causing the cysteine----serine substitution at position 85. Eur J Biochem. 1990 Apr 30;189(2):455–461. [PubMed]
  • Tamate HB, Hirobe T, Wakamatsu K, Ito S, Shibahara S, Ishikawa K. Levels of tyrosinase and its mRNA in coat-color mutants of C57BL/10J congenic mice: effects of genic substitution at the agouti, brown, albino, dilute, and pink-eyed dilution loci. J Exp Zool. 1989 Jun;250(3):304–311. [PubMed]
  • Beermann F, Ruppert S, Hummler E, Schütz G. Tyrosinase as a marker for transgenic mice. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991 Feb 25;19(4):958–958. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Duboule D, Dollé P. The structural and functional organization of the murine HOX gene family resembles that of Drosophila homeotic genes. EMBO J. 1989 May;8(5):1497–1505. [PMC free article] [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences


Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...


Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...