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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Nov 15, 1993; 90(22): 10876–10880.

Gastric DNA-binding proteins recognize upstream sequence motifs of parietal cell-specific genes.


Polymerase chain reaction amplification of cDNA from pig gastric mucosa demonstrated the presence of zinc-finger proteins called GATA-GT1, GATA-GT2, and GATA-GT3, each having zinc-finger sequences similar to previously characterized GATA-binding proteins. Subsequently, full-length cDNAs of GATA-GT1 and GATA-GT2 were obtained from rat stomach. The zinc-finger domains of GATA-GT1 and -GT2 were 66-86% identical on the amino acid level with each other and with other GATA-binding proteins. Potential protein kinase phosphorylation sites were present in the zinc-finger region. In contrast, regions outside the zinc fingers shared significantly lower similarities. GATA-GT2 was found to bind to the upstream sequence of the H+/K(+)-ATPase beta gene and to a sequence containing the GATA motif. GATA-GT1 and -GT2 were expressed predominantly in the gastric mucosa and at much lower levels in the intestine (GATA-GT2, also in testis), their tissue distributions being distinct from those of GATA-1, -2, or -3. These results clearly suggest that GATA-GT1 and GATA-GT2 are involved in gene regulation specifically in the gastric epithelium and represent two additional members of the GATA-binding protein family.

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