• We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information
Logo of pnasPNASInfo for AuthorsSubscriptionsAboutThis Article
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. Sep 15, 1993; 90(18): 8543–8546.
PMCID: PMC47393

Staphylococcal enterotoxins can reactivate experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

Abstract

Staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are one member of a unique group of molecules known as superantigens. They are potent T-cell activators and stimulate a large number of T cells bearing specific T-cell-receptor beta-chain variable regions. It has been proposed that superantigens may trigger autoimmune disorders by stimulation of autoreactive T cells with restricted beta-chain variable-chain usage. We investigated the effects of SEs B and A (SEB and SEA) on the reactivation of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, an animal model for multiple sclerosis. We report that SEB can reinduce encephalitis multiple times in PL/J mice that had previously recovered from an acute episode. SEB was also able to induce encephalitis in mice previously immunized with myelin basic protein but did not show clinical signs of disease. In addition, it was observed that T cells from PL/J mice that had been previously activated by myelin basic protein in complete Freund's adjuvant or in complete Freund's adjuvant alone were resistant to the induction of anergy by SEB. To determine whether reactivation of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis was specific for SEB, another superantigen, SEA, was employed. It was found that SEA was also able to reinduce experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in mice previously recovered from an acute episode and those that had been previously immunized with myelin basic protein but did not show clinical signs of disease. These results indicate that SEs are capable of reactivating autoreactive T cells and inducing autoimmune disease.

Full text

Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (972K), or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References.

Selected References

These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
  • Johnson HM, Russell JK, Pontzer CH. Staphylococcal enterotoxin microbial superantigens. FASEB J. 1991 Sep;5(12):2706–2712. [PubMed]
  • Langford MP, Stanton GJ, Johnson HM. Biological effects of staphylococcal enterotoxin A on human peripheral lymphocytes. Infect Immun. 1978 Oct;22(1):62–68. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Marrack P, Kappler J. The staphylococcal enterotoxins and their relatives. Science. 1990 May 11;248(4956):705–711. [PubMed]
  • Fleischer B, Schrezenmeier H. T cell stimulation by staphylococcal enterotoxins. Clonally variable response and requirement for major histocompatibility complex class II molecules on accessory or target cells. J Exp Med. 1988 May 1;167(5):1697–1707. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Callahan JE, Herman A, Kappler JW, Marrack P. Stimulation of B10.BR T cells with superantigenic staphylococcal toxins. J Immunol. 1990 Apr 1;144(7):2473–2479. [PubMed]
  • Cole BC, Atkin CL. The Mycoplasma arthritidis T-cell mitogen, MAM: a model superantigen. Immunol Today. 1991 Aug;12(8):271–276. [PubMed]
  • Friedman SM, Posnett DN, Tumang JR, Cole BC, Crow MK. A potential role for microbial superantigens in the pathogenesis of systemic autoimmune disease. Arthritis Rheum. 1991 Apr;34(4):468–480. [PubMed]
  • Howell MD, Diveley JP, Lundeen KA, Esty A, Winters ST, Carlo DJ, Brostoff SW. Limited T-cell receptor beta-chain heterogeneity among interleukin 2 receptor-positive synovial T cells suggests a role for superantigen in rheumatoid arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Dec 1;88(23):10921–10925. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Paliard X, West SG, Lafferty JA, Clements JR, Kappler JW, Marrack P, Kotzin BL. Evidence for the effects of a superantigen in rheumatoid arthritis. Science. 1991 Jul 19;253(5017):325–329. [PubMed]
  • Zamvil SS, Steinman L. The T lymphocyte in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Annu Rev Immunol. 1990;8:579–621. [PubMed]
  • Fritz RB, Chou CH, McFarlin DE. Relapsing murine experimental allergic encephalomyelitis induced by myelin basic protein. J Immunol. 1983 Mar;130(3):1024–1026. [PubMed]
  • Acha-Orbea H, Mitchell DJ, Timmermann L, Wraith DC, Tausch GS, Waldor MK, Zamvil SS, McDevitt HO, Steinman L. Limited heterogeneity of T cell receptors from lymphocytes mediating autoimmune encephalomyelitis allows specific immune intervention. Cell. 1988 Jul 15;54(2):263–273. [PubMed]
  • Zamvil SS, Mitchell DJ, Lee NE, Moore AC, Waldor MK, Sakai K, Rothbard JB, McDevitt HO, Steinman L, Acha-Orbea H. Predominant expression of a T cell receptor V beta gene subfamily in autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Exp Med. 1988 May 1;167(5):1586–1596. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Zamvil SS, Nelson PA, Mitchell DJ, Knobler RL, Fritz RB, Steinman L. Encephalitogenic T cell clones specific for myelin basic protein. An unusual bias in antigen recognition. J Exp Med. 1985 Dec 1;162(6):2107–2124. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Oksenberg JR, Panzara MA, Begovich AB, Mitchell D, Erlich HA, Murray RS, Shimonkevitz R, Sherritt M, Rothbard J, Bernard CC, et al. Selection for T-cell receptor V beta-D beta-J beta gene rearrangements with specificity for a myelin basic protein peptide in brain lesions of multiple sclerosis. Nature. 1993 Mar 4;362(6415):68–70. [PubMed]
  • Rellahan BL, Jones LA, Kruisbeek AM, Fry AM, Matis LA. In vivo induction of anergy in peripheral V beta 8+ T cells by staphylococcal enterotoxin B. J Exp Med. 1990 Oct 1;172(4):1091–1100. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kawabe Y, Ochi A. Selective anergy of V beta 8+,CD4+ T cells in Staphylococcus enterotoxin B-primed mice. J Exp Med. 1990 Oct 1;172(4):1065–1070. [PMC free article] [PubMed]
  • Kawabe Y, Ochi A. Programmed cell death and extrathymic reduction of Vbeta8+ CD4+ T cells in mice tolerant to Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B. Nature. 1991 Jan 17;349(6306):245–248. [PubMed]
  • Kamradt T, Soloway PD, Perkins DL, Gefter ML. Pertussis toxin prevents the induction of peripheral T cell anergy and enhances the T cell response to an encephalitogenic peptide of myelin basic protein. J Immunol. 1991 Nov 15;147(10):3296–3302. [PubMed]
  • Grenier-Brosette N, Bettetini D, Fehlmann M, Cousin JL. Induction of helper T cells by pertussis toxin during in vivo priming to insulin. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 1991;13(1-2):73–86. [PubMed]
  • Lehmann PV, Forsthuber T, Miller A, Sercarz EE. Spreading of T-cell autoimmunity to cryptic determinants of an autoantigen. Nature. 1992 Jul 9;358(6382):155–157. [PubMed]
  • Soos JM, Schiffenbauer J, Johnson HM. Treatment of PL/J mice with the superantigen, staphylococcal enterotoxin B, prevents development of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol. 1993 Mar;43(1-2):39–43. [PubMed]
  • Schwab JH, Brown RR, Anderle SK, Schlievert PM. Superantigen can reactivate bacterial cell wall-induced arthritis. J Immunol. 1993 May 1;150(9):4151–4159. [PubMed]

Articles from Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America are provided here courtesy of National Academy of Sciences

Formats:

Related citations in PubMed

See reviews...See all...

Cited by other articles in PMC

See all...

Links

  • MedGen
    MedGen
    Related information in MedGen
  • PubMed
    PubMed
    PubMed citations for these articles
  • Substance
    Substance
    PubChem Substance links

Recent Activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...